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Cross Reference Papilloedema Obtundation Obtundation is a state of altered consciousness characterized by reduced alert ness and a lessened interest in the environment generic 60caps virility pills herbals usa, sometimes described as psy chomotor retardation or torpor cheap 60caps virility pills visa herbals forum. An increased proportion of time is spent asleep and the patient is drowsy when awake trusted virility pills 60 caps ratnasagar herbals pvt ltd. Cross References Coma; Psychomotor retardation; Stupor Ocular Apraxia Ocular apraxia (ocular motor apraxia) is a disorder of voluntary saccade initia tion; re exive saccades and spontaneous eye movements are preserved discount virility pills 60 caps jb herbals. Ocular apraxia may be overcome by using dynamic head thrusting, with or without blinking (to suppress vestibulo-ocular re exes): the desired xation point is achieved through re ex contraversive tonic eye movements to the midposition following the overshoot of the eyes caused by the head thrust. Ocular apraxia may occur as a congenital syndrome (in the horizontal plane only: Cogan’s syndrome), or may be acquired in ataxia telangiectasia (Louis–Bar syndrome), Niemann–Pick disease (mainly vertical plane affected), and Gaucher’s disease (horizontal plane only). Cross References Apraxia; Saccades Ocular Bobbing Ocular bobbing refers to intermittent abnormal vertical eye movements, usu ally conjugate, consisting of a fast downward movement followed by a slow return to the initial horizontal eye position. The sign has no precise localizing value, but is most commonly associated with intrinsic pontine lesions. It has also been described in encephalitis, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, and toxic encephalopathies. Its patho physiology is uncertain but may involve mesencephalic and medullary burst neurone centres. Variations on the theme include • Inverse ocular bobbing: slow downward movement, fast return (also known as fast upward ocular bobbing or ocular dipping); • Reverse ocular bobbing: fast upward movement, slow return to midposition; • Converse ocular bobbing: slow upward movement, fast down (also known as slow upward ocular bobbing or reverse ocular dipping). Cross Reference Ocular dipping Ocular Dipping Ocular dipping, or inverse ocular bobbing, consists of a slow spontaneous down ward eye movement with a fast return to the midposition. This may be observed in anoxic coma or following prolonged status epilepticus and is thought to be a marker of diffuse, rather than focal, brain damage. Reverse ocular dipping (slow upward ocular bobbing) consists of a slow upward movement followed by a fast return to the midposition. Cross Reference Ocular bobbing Ocular Flutter Ocular utter is an eye movement disorder characterized by involuntary bursts of back-to-back horizontal saccades without an intersaccadic interval (cf. Ocular utter associated with a localized lesion in the paramedian pontine reticular formation. It has occasionally been reported with cerebellar lesions and may be under inhibitory cerebellar control. Cross References Hypotropia; Lateral medullary syndrome; Skew deviation; Synkinesia, Synkinesis; Tullio phenomenon; Vestibulo-ocular re exes Oculocephalic Response Oculocephalic responses are most commonly elicited in unconscious patients; the head is passively rotated in the horizontal or vertical plane (doll’s head maneou vre) and the eye movements are observed. Conjugate eye movement in a direction opposite to that in which the head is turned is indicative of an intact brain stem (intact vestibulo-ocular re exes). With pontine lesions, the oculocephalic responses may be lost, after roving eye movements but before caloric responses disappear. Cross References Caloric testing; Coma; Doll’s head manoeuvre, Doll’s eye manoeuvre; Head impulse test; Roving eye movements; Supranuclear gaze palsy; Vestibulo-ocular re exes Oculogyric Crisis Oculogyric crisis is an acute dystonia of the ocular muscles, usually causing upward and lateral displacement of the eye. It is often accompanied by a dis order of attention (obsessive, persistent thoughts), with or without dystonic or dyskinetic movements. It occurs particularly with symptomatic (secondary), as opposed to idiopathic (primary), dystonias, for example, postencephalitic and neuroleptic-induced dystonia, the latter now being the most common cause. This is usually an acute effect but may on occasion be seen as a consequence of chronic therapy (tardive oculogyric crisis). It has also been described with Wilson’s dis ease, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and organophosphate poisoning. Lesions within the lentiform nuclei have been recorded in cases with oculogyric crisis. Treatment of acute neuroleptic-induced dystonia is either parenteral benzo diazepine or an anticholinergic agent such as procyclidine, benztropine, or trihexyphenidyl. Oculogyric crisis and abnormal magnetic resonance imaging signals in bilateral lentiform nuclei. Fascicular (within substance of midbrain): all muscles or speci c mus cles involved, + other clinical signs expected, such as contralateral ataxia (Claude’s syndrome), hemiparesis (Weber’s syndrome). Orbit: paresis of isolated muscle almost always from orbital lesion or muscle disease. Oculomotor nerve palsies may be distinguished as ‘pupil involving’ or ‘pupil sparing’, the former implying a ‘surgical’, the latter a ‘medical’ cause, but this distinction only holds for complete palsies. Transtentorial (uncal) 250 Onion Peel, Onion Skin O herniation due to raised intracranial pressure may, particularly in its early stages, cause an oculomotor nerve palsy due to stretching of the nerve, a ‘false-localizing sign’. In young patients this is most often due to demyelination, in the elderly to brainstem ischaemia; brainstem arteriovenous malformation or tumour may also be responsible. A vertical one-and-a-half syndrome has also been described, characterized by vertical upgaze palsy and monocular paresis of downgaze, either ipsilateral or contralateral to the lesion. Electro-oculographic analyses of ve patients with deductions about the physiological mechanisms of lateral gaze. A unilateral disorder of the pontine tegmentum: a study of 20 cases and a review of the literature. It re ects the somatotopic sensory representation in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve: midline face (nose, mouth) represented rostrally, lateral facial sensation represented caudally. A distinction is sometimes drawn between: • External ophthalmoplegia: weakness of the extraocular muscles of central, neuromuscular, or myopathic origin: Supranuclear. The term ‘ophthalmoplegia plus’ has been used to denote the combination of progressive external ophthalmoplegia with additional symptoms and signs, indicative of brainstem, pyramidal, endocrine, cardiac, muscular, hypothalamic, or auditory system involvement, as in mitochondrial disease. Cross References Coma; Decerebrate rigidity; Emposthotonos Oppenheim’s Sign Oppenheim’s sign is a variant method for eliciting the plantar response, by appli cation of heavy pressure to the anterior surface of the tibia, for example, with the thumb, and moving it down from the patella to the ankle.
Headache secondary to cheap virility pills 60 caps overnight delivery rumi herbals chennai psy bizarre buy virility pills 60caps free shipping herbal medicine, such as the idea of a transmitter being surgi chiatric disorders cheap 60caps virility pills otc himalaya herbals wiki. Chichester: John explanation for the headache cheap 60 caps virility pills with mastercard herbals for arthritis, such as its being a Wiley and Sons 2003: 1419–20. Other headache disorders 774 Cephalalgia 33(9) the cause may be clear, such as infection by Herpes 13. Painful cranial neuropathies and other zoster or a structural abnormality demonstrated by facial pains imaging, but in some cases there may be no cause 13. When pain is found to result purely paroxysmal from compression of the nerve by a vascular loop at 13. As many patients do not come to operation, facial pain it remains uncertain as to whether they have primary or 13. International Association for the Study of Pain: Pain in the head and neck is mediated by a erent bres Taxonomy. Stimulation of these nerves by compression, distortion, exposure to cold or other Description: forms of irritation or by a lesion in central pathways A disorder characterized by recurrent unilateral brief may give rise to stabbing or constant pain felt in the electric shock-like pains, abrupt in onset and termina area innervated. It may develop without apparent cause or be a caused by neurovascular compression, most frequently result of another diagnosed disorder. Description: Following a painful paroxysm there is usually a refrac Trigeminal neuralgia developing without apparent tory period during which pain cannot be triggered. When very severe, the pain often evokes contraction of the muscle of the face on the a ected side (tic dou Diagnostic criteria: loureux). Mild autonomic symptoms such as lacrima tion and/or redness of the eye may be present. At least three attacks of unilateral facial pain ful the duration of pain attacks can change over time lling criteria B and C and become more prolonged as well as severe. Occurring in one or more divisions of the trigeminal result in psychosocial dysfunction, signi cantly impair nerve, with no radiation beyond the trigeminal ing quality of life and often leading to weight loss. No persistent facial pain between attacks precipitated in this way to meet this criterion. When either is present, there is trigeminal neuropa thy and extensive diagnostic work-up is necessary Comment: to exclude symptomatic cases. Evidence of causation demonstrated by both of the Trigeminal neuralgia with persistent background facial following: pain. Herpes zoster a ects the trigeminal ganglion in 10–15% of cases, with the ophthalmic division being singled out in some 80% of patients. Rarely, pain is not followed Comments: by an eruption or rash (zoster sine herpete). It is less likely to be triggered common in immunocompromised patients, occurring by innocuous stimuli. The pain is highly variable in quality and intensity Description: according to the cause. Unilateral head and/or facial pain persisting or recurring for at least 3 months in the distribution 13. Description: Unilateral head and/or facial pain of less than 3 Diagnostic criteria: months’ duration in the distribution of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve, caused by and asso A. Unilateral head and/or facial pain persisting or ciated with other symptoms and/or clinical signs of recurring for! History of acute Herpes zoster a ecting a trigeminal Diagnostic criteria: nerve branch or branches C. Unilateral head and/or facial pain lasting <3 following: months and ful lling criterion C 1. Description: Itching of a ected areas may be very prominent and Unilateral head and/or facial pain in the distribution of extremely bothersome. Sensory abnormalities and allo a trigeminal nerve and with the characteristics of clas dynia are usually present in the territory involved. Pale sical trigeminal neuralgia, induced by a multiple sclero or light purple scars may be present as sequelae of the sis plaque a ecting the trigeminal nerve root and herpetic eruption. History of an identi able traumatic event to the tri patients have a syndrome that is similar to 13. The traumatic event may be mechanical, chemical, Description: thermal or caused by radiation. Unilateral head and/or facial pain in the distribution of a trigeminal nerve and with the characteristics of clas sical trigeminal neuralgia, induced by contact between Comment: the a ected trigeminal nerve and a space-occupying Pain duration ranges widely from paroxysmal to con lesion. Speci cally following International Headache Society 2013 778 Cephalalgia 33(9) Diagnostic criteria: B. Pain is located in the posterior part of the tongue, tonsillar fossa, pharynx, beneath the angle of the A. Unilateral head and/or facial pain with the charac lower jaw and/or in the ear teristics of 13. Pain has at least three of the following four or without concomitant persistent facial pain and characteristics: ful lling criterion C 1. A space-occupying lesion, and contact between the few seconds to 2 minutes lesion and the a ected trigeminal nerve, have been 2. Prior to its development, unpleasant sensations can be experienced in a ected areas for weeks to several 13. Head and/or facial pain with the characteristics of In rare cases, attacks of pain are associated with 13. Some authors have proposed rily unilateral distinguishing between pharyngeal, otalgic and B.
A mucocele develops from sinus ostial obstruction and re Orbital complications of sinusitis include preseptal perior sults in opaci cation and expansion of the sinus (Fig purchase virility pills 60caps mastercard qarshi herbals. Intracranial complications include meningitis buy 60 caps virility pills visa herbals choice, the peripheral enhancement of a mucocele distinguishes it from empyema buy 60caps virility pills overnight delivery lotus herbals 3 in 1, abscess virility pills 60caps low price herbs uses, thrombophlebitis, and cavernous sinus throm neoplasm. Osteomyelitis rarely complicates sinonasal tensity may represent chronic inspissated secretions, myceto infection but may occur with trauma, surgery, or hematogenous ma. Ear and Temporal Bone Complications are related to bony erosion or deformity that may Otitis Media and Mastoiditis involve the scutum, ossicles, mastoid, tegmen tympani, sigmoid Acute and chronic forms of otitis media characteristically produce sinus plate, facial nerve canal, or lateral semicircular canal. Secondary bacterial infection is com complications include meningitis, abscess formation, venous mon. It appears as a nonenhancing soft tissue mass with sharply mar teal abscess, and neck abscess (Bezold abscess). Intracranial complications result from bony erosion or septic throm Otitis Externa bophlebitis and include epidural abscess, subdural empyema, Otitis externa is often self-limiting. In immunocompromised pa meningitis, cerebritis, cerebellitis, brain abscess (usually in the tients, a severe necrotizing form may develop that extends to the temporal lobe or cerebellum), and dural venous sinus thrombosis. Granulation A simple mastoidectomy results in removal of mastoid air cells tissue may be soft or brous, contain cholesterol or hemorrhage, but preservation of the external canal wall and ossicles. Primary acquired cholesteatomas the Neck, Oral Cavity, and Jaw result from eustachian or attic obstruction with tympanic mem Pharyngeal and Retropharyngeal Infection brane (superior pars accida) retraction. They begin in Prussak’s In ammatory processes are common in childhood and may mani space and extend to the mastoid antrum and air cells, often with fest as fever, sore throat, jaw pain, dysphagia, drooling, stridor, or extension to the posterior tympanic recesses. Because of ossicular destruction, only a portion of the right incus remains (short arrow). Complications petrous apex opaci cation, enhancement, and bony destruction (arrows include airway encroachment, osteomyelitis, sinus or orbital in in A) as well as the right dural, cavernous sinus, and orbit involvement volvement, internal jugular vein thrombosis, carotid artery rup (arrows in B and C). Parapharyngeal or retropha Lymphadenitis is the most common cause of lymphadenopathy ryngeal lymphadenitis may do the same, especially in infants and in childhood. Acute adenitis may be bilateral from the skull base to the mediastinum and contains lymph. Subacute or chronic lymphadenitis the more midline perivertebral space edema that may follow is more typical of mycobacterial infections, cat-scratch disease, vertebral osteomyelitis or epidural abscess. Nonin ammatory adenopathy raises clude thickening of the retropharyngeal soft tissues and anterior suspicion for malignancy. Uniform contrast enhancement is com anteroposterior, rotary, or transverse displacement of C1 on C2, mon with viral processes. Mycobac terial adenitis (tuberculous or nontuberculous) is suggested by a nodal mass with central liquefaction, thick margin enhancement, and extension to the skin (Figs. Calci cation is common but may also be seen in other granulomatous infections, treated lymphoma, and metastatic disease. Cellulitis refers to diffuse bacterial or viral in ammation with edema, swelling, and fat plane obliteration, but no dis tinct mass. Extensive soft tissue in ltration of multiple tissue planes, including muscle, suggests the more severe condition of fasciitis. Thyroid In ammation Suppurative submandibular sialadenitis is usually related to sialo Hashimoto thyroiditis is the most common acquired thyroid lithiasis. Acute suppurative thyroiditis with abscess suggests a contrast enhancement of the gland and duct walls with ductal dil congenital pyriform sinus stula (see Fig. In sialolithiasis, stones are usually solitary and arise within Salivary Gland In ammation Wharton’s duct. Complications include obstruction, infection, Acute sialadenitis is usually viral or bacterial. Noncalci ed stones may be prior infection, dehydration, trauma, surgery, irradiation, certain diagnosed only with sialography. Imaging may show permeative bone destruction, soft sublingual gland duct and manifests as a unilateral mass in the tissue edema, cellulitis, or abscess. Extension below the mylohyoid sequestrum formation, and bony sclerosis indicate chronicity. A muscle anterior to the submandibular gland is called a “plunging chronic sclerosing form may be seen and may be associated with ranula. Chronic sialadenitis may be idiopathic or result from recurrent bacterial infection, ductal obstruction (especially submandibular Neoplastic Processes gland), granulomatous disease, prior irradiation, or autoimmune disease. Sjogren syndrome is an autoimmune disease that may be limited to the Orbit and Globe salivary or lacrimal glands or may also have systemic involve Neoplastic processes of the orbit and globe include ocular tumors, ment. Pathologically, these may be neoplastic tuberculosis, or sarcoidosis may also cause salivary gland enlarge processes of mesenchymal, neural, or malformative origin. Such involvement is to be distinguished malformation, plexiform neuro broma, and teratoma. Tumors most often arising ex Osteomyelitis traconally include dermoid-epidermoid, hemangioma, lymphatic Osteomyelitis of the mandible may result from direct inocula malformation, plexiform neuro broma, teratoma, neuroblastoma, tion. Mesenchymal Tumors Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common malignant tumor of the head and neck region. They may also arise else Neoplastic Processes where and metastasize to the orbit. These aggressive, invasive neoplasms are usually of the embryonal or alveolar subtype. There may Vascular malformations be intracranial extension and regional or systemic metastases.
Emotional facial paresis in temporal lobe epilepsy: its prevalence and lateralizing value virility pills 60caps discount herbals for hair growth. Clinically buy 60caps virility pills quest herbals, facilitation may be demonstrated by the appearance of tendon re exes which are absent at rest after prolonged (ca 60 caps virility pills visa klaron herbals. Cross References Augmentation; Fatigue; Lambert’s sign False-Localizing Signs Neurological signs may be described as ‘false-localizing’ when their appear ance re ects pathology distant from the expected anatomical locus buy generic virility pills 60 caps on line herbals for erectile dysfunction. The classic example, and probably the most frequently observed, is abducens nerve palsy (unilateral or bilateral) in the context of raised intracranial pressure, presumed to result from stretching of the nerve over the ridge of the petrous temporal bone. Fasciculations may also be induced by lightly tapping over a partially denervated muscle belly. The term was formerly used synonymously with brillation, but the latter term is now reserved for contraction of a single muscle bre or a group of bres smaller than a motor unit. Persistent fasciculations most usually re ect a pathological process involving the lower motor neurones in the anterior (ventral) horn of the spinal cord and/or in brain stem motor nuclei, typically motor neurone disease (in which cramps are an early associated symptom). Facial and perioral fasciculations are highly characteristic of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy’s disease). However, fascicula tions are not pathognomonic of lower motor neurone pathology since they can on rare occasions be seen with upper motor neurone pathology. The pathophysiological mechanism of fasciculations is thought to be spon taneous discharge from motor nerves, but the site of origin of this discharge is uncertain. Although ectopic neural discharge from anywhere along the lower motor neurone from cell body to nerve terminal could produce fasciculation, the commonly encountered assumption that this originates from the anterior horn cell body is not entirely supported by the available evidence, which points to an additional, more distal, origin in the motor axons. Denervation of muscle bres may lead to nerve bre sprouting (axonal and collateral) and enlargement of motor units which makes fasciculations more obvious clinically. Fasciculations may be seen in: • Motor neurone disease with lower motor neurone involvement. This pattern has been observed in progressive supranuclear palsy and 139 F Fatigue with globus pallidus lesions, and contrasts with the ‘slow’ micrographia, mean ing writing which becomes progressively slower and smaller, as seen in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Cross Reference Micrographia Fatigue the term fatigue may be used in different contexts to refer to both a sign and a symptom. The sign of fatigue, also known as peripheral fatigue, consists of a reduc tion in muscle strength or endurance with repeated muscular contraction. This most characteristically occurs in disorders of neuromuscular junction transmis sion. In myasthenia gravis, fatigue may be elicited in the extraocular muscles by prolonged upgaze causing eyelid drooping; in bulbar muscles by prolonged counting or speech causing hypophonia; and in limb muscles by repeated con traction, especially of proximal muscles. A gradual decline in the amplitude and speed of initiation of voluntary move ments, hypometria and hypokinesia, as seen in disorders of the basal ganglia, especially Parkinson’s disease, may also be described as fatigue. Fatigue as a symptom, or central fatigue, is an enhanced perception of effort and limited endurance in sustained physical and mental activities. Current treatment is symptomatic (amantadine, modafanil, 3,4-diaminopyridine) and rehabilitative (graded exercise). Fatigue may be evaluated with various instruments, such as the Krupp Fatigue Severity Score. Cross Reference Lasegue’s sign Fencer’s Posture, Fencing Posture Epileptic seizures arising in or involving the supplementary motor area may lead to adversial head and eye deviation, abduction and external rotation of the con tralateral arm, exion at the elbows, and posturing of the legs, with maintained consciousness, a phenomenon christened by Pen eld as the ‘fencing posture’ because of its resemblance to the en garde position. Cross Reference Seizures Festinant Gait, Festination Festinant gait or festination is a gait disorder characterized by rapid short steps (Latin: festinare, to hurry, hasten, accelerate) due to inadequate maintenance of the body’s centre of gravity over the legs. To avoid falling and to maintain bal ance the patient must ‘chase’ the centre of gravity, leading to an increasing speed of gait and a tendency to fall forward when walking (propulsion). A similar phenomenon may be observed if the patient is pulled backwards (retropulsion). Festination is common in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease; it is associated with longer duration of disease and higher Hoehn & Yahr stage. Festination may be related to the exed posture and impaired postural re exes commonly seen in these patients. It is less common in symptomatic causes of parkinsonism, but has been reported, for example, in aqueduct stenosis. Cross References Freezing; Parkinsonism; Postural re exes Fibrillation Fibrillation was previously synonymous with fasciculation, but the term is now reserved for the spontaneous contraction of a single muscle bre, or a group of bres smaller than a motor unit, hence this is more appropriately regarded as an electrophysiological sign without clinical correlate. This is a disorder of body schema and may be regarded as a partial form of autotopagnosia. Finger agnosia is most commonly observed with lesions of the dominant parietal lobe. It may occur in association with acalculia, agraphia, and right– left disorientation, with or without alexia and dif culty spelling words, hence as one feature of Gerstmann syndrome. Isolated cases of nger agnosia in associa tion with left corticosubcortical posterior parietal infarction have been reported. Diagnostic value of history and physical examination in patients suspected of lumbosacral nerve root compression. It follows non-dominant (right) hemisphere lesions and may accompany emotional dysprosody of speech. Cross References Abulia; Aprosodia, Aprosody; Facial paresis, Facial weakness Fist-Edge-Palm Test In the st-edge-palm test, sometimes known as the Luria test or three-step motor sequence, the patient is requested to place the hand successively in three posi tions, imitating movements made by the examiner and then doing them alone: st, vertical palm, palm resting at on table. Defects in this programming, such as lack of kinetic melody, loss of sequence, or repetition of previous pose or position, are espe cially conspicuous with anterior cortical lesions.
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