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Book covers can be influential in the classroom and this one with its blue guitar-playing silhouette and its catchy tag (A boy purchase tiova rotacap 15 caps visa medications ok for pregnancy. It’s a quick read and will provide the basis for some spirited classroom discussions about relationships purchase tiova rotacap 15caps without a prescription treatment vs cure, ethics buy 15caps tiova rotacap with amex treatment 2nd degree burn, identity and the thrill and power of live music tiova rotacap 15 caps for sale medications and mothers milk 2014. Tensions are apparent in the select group of young athletes at Challenge Camp Australia as they compete for limited places in the lead-up to the Sydney Games. This fast-moving play with its musical score provides opportunities for classroom production and discussion. Bog Bodies has all the reference features expected of information books but is firstly an engaging, lucidly written factual anthology generously illustrated with sketches and photographs. The poems are all about the intensely personal relationship of the reader and a book, implicitly inviting children to reassess and interrogate their own attitudes to and ways of reading in a creative way. In simple rhyme the poems deal with the parts of a book, the emotions conveyed by books and the characters. The poignant sense of dread and alienation in the novel is subtly offset by Cal’s self-deprecating humour and the warm, loving relationship she has with her young brother. This is an outstanding work that examines the complex nature of responsibility, including to oneself, in a very positive manner. Feinberg’s lyrical language and sustained celestial analogies, reminiscent of the work of Margaret Mahy, contribute to the inspiring nature of the book. She is going through a negative, selfish and critical phase but learns to accept and embrace difference and even helps a disabled kid at the pool. The film is set in 1984 on the rural east coast of New Zealand where Boy, his younger brother, Rocky, and other deserted cousins are being brought up by his grandmother. When his grandmother goes to a funeral, Boy’s father, Alamein, returns after a seven-year absence. He’s been in jail but he’s a hero to Boy who has pictured him as a war champion, deep-sea diver and rock star. Alamein sets his mates and Boy digging for lost robbery money, steals marijuana from a neighbour’s crop and ends up on the wrong side of an altercation with the angry drug owners. While that all sounds a bit bleak it is seen through Boy’s eyes with honesty and innocence and tempered with some great comic moments. The scene on the beach with Alamein playing soldiers with his boys (Rocky sits back in wry amusement) is hilarious. Boy gradually realises his father is a delayed adolescent whose harebrained schemes will probably get him back in jail and the viewer shares his disappointment. However, even as Boy is disillusioned his ability to bounce back and good nature resurface. He looks after the other kids and helps fix up the house for his grandmother’s return. The meeting between the boys and their father at their mother’s graveside is a moving moment. Boy is one of those wonderful, rare films that seem to catch the bitterness and the sweetness of life, it would be a great vehicle for classroom discussion in Year 9 about families, growing up, inequality of opportunity, and the healing power of humour. Jamal and Bibi’s parents have been secretly running a school in their home for some local village children, including girls. Fearing further retribution from the government after their home is blown up, they decide to flee the country. The family escapes Afghanistan, but is forced to find accommodation in an overcrowded refugee border camp in Pakistan before making their way to Indonesia. Unexpectedly separated from their parents, Jamal and Bibi escape to Australia alone, in a leaky boat and at the mercy of Suggested texts for the English K–10 Syllabus 113 ruthless people smugglers. The football theme will hook boys, while the strong female character will appeal to girls. Students will enjoy the revenge on the disgusting sweetshop owner, Mrs Pratchett, and the unanaesthetised removal of tonsils. Dahl’s ability to capture the life and humour in an incident can provide a model for telling students’ own tales in the classroom. Dahl shares a sad childhood because his father dies and he is then sent to boarding school. In his exploits at boarding school we can see the beginnings of a creative humour that permeates his novels. Willie, an Aboriginal teenager, loves Rosie but goes away to Perth to learn to be a priest. Once there, Willie rebels against Father Benedictus and the paternalism of the church and heads home to Broome with his ‘Uncle’ Tadpole. Father Benedictus follows in pursuit and there are many laughs and adventures on the way north with two hippy tourists as well as surprising revelations about family members. Perkins contrasts the cheerfulness of the journey home by, on occasions, allowing the shadows of past injustices to Aboriginal people to fall across the screen, although generally the mood is playful and good-humoured. Year 10 students could explore the film’s depiction of Aboriginal identity and contrast it with the often stereotypical representations found in past literature. They could consider the ways the director has used music and humour to challenge such stereotypes and enrich the film. Drawing on her Indian and Bollywood film roots, the director, Gurinder Chadha, refreshes this famous story with Indian musical and dance sequences and interpolations that explore racial and cultural intolerance and ignorance. Transforming and transferring English 19th century prejudices and sensibilities into contemporary intercultural relationships, this film is able to enhance the universal appeal of Austen’s classic novel as it continues to teach us about love, relationships, human behaviours and social and family expectations. The Bollywood conventions incorporated here can challenge contemporary Western viewers but students should soon be able to analyse them for their cinematic referencing as well as their development of plot and character. They are also significant in creating audience engagement and enjoyment of the film. Chadha also vividly captures the satire and wit of Austen as many of her scenes are shot for their humour as well as for their social commentary.
He discovered an important principle of memory: Memory decays rapidly at first buy tiova rotacap 15caps fast delivery medications gabapentin, but the amount of decay levels off with time (Figure 8 buy generic tiova rotacap 15caps on line medicine 1975. Although Ebbinghaus looked at forgetting after days had  elapsed proven tiova rotacap 15caps medicine disposal, the same effect occurs on longer and shorter time scales cheap tiova rotacap 15caps without a prescription treatment high blood pressure. Bahrick (1984) found that students who took a Spanish language course forgot about one half of the vocabulary that they had learned within three years, but that after that time their memory remained pretty much constant. Ebbinghaus also discovered another important principle of learning, known as the spacing effect. The spacing effect refers to the fact that learning is better when the same amount of study is spread out over periods of time than it is when it occurs closer together or at the same time. This means that even if you have only a limited amount of time to study, you’ll learn more if you study continually throughout the semester (a little bit every day is best) than if you wait to cram at the last minute before your exam (Figure 8. Another good strategy is to study and then wait as long as you can before you forget the material. Then review the information and again wait as long as you can before you forget it. The spacing effect is usually considered in terms of the difference between distributed practice (practice that is spread out over time) and massed practice (practice that comes in one block), with the former approach producing better memory. Leslie, Lee Ann, and Nora all studied for four hours total, but the students who spread out their learning into smaller study sessions did better on the exam. Ebbinghaus also considered the role of overlearning—that is, continuing to practice and study even when we think that we have mastered the material. Ebbinghaus and other researchers have  found that overlearning helps encoding (Driskell, Willis, & Copper, 1992). Students frequently think that they have already mastered the material but then discover when they get to the exam that they have not. The point is clear: Try to keep studying and reviewing, even if you think you already know all the material. Retrieval Even when information has been adequately encoded and stored, it does not do us any good if we cannot retrieve it. Retrieval refers to the process of reactivating information that has been stored in memory. You can get an idea of the difficulty posed by retrieval by simply reading each of the words (but not the categories) in the sidebar below to someone. Tell the person that after you have read all the words, you will ask her to recall the words. Make sure that she cannot recall any more and then, for the words that were not listed, prompt your friend with some of the category names: “Do you remember any words that were furniture. Retrieval Demonstration Try this test of the ability to retrieve information with a classmate. Read your friend the names of the 10 states listed in the sidebar below, and ask him to name the capital city of each state. Now, for the capital cities that your friend can’t name, give him just the first letter of the capital city. You’ll probably find that having the first letters of the cities helps with retrieval. The tip-of-the-tongue experience is a very good example of the inability to retrieve information that is actually stored in memory. States and Capital Cities Try this demonstration of the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon with a classmate. Georgia (Atlanta) Maryland (Annapolis) California (Sacramento) Louisiana (Baton Rouge) Florida (Tallahassee) Colorado (Denver) New Jersey (Trenton) Arizona (Phoenix) Nebraska (Lincoln) Kentucky (Frankfort) We are more likely to be able to retrieve items from memory when conditions at retrieval are similar to the conditions under which we encoded them. Context-dependent learning refers to an increase in retrieval when the external situation in which information is learned matches the  situation in which it is remembered. Godden and Baddeley (1975) conducted a study to test this idea using scuba divers. They asked the divers to learn a list of words either when they were on land or when they were underwater. You can see that context-dependent learning might also be important in improving your memory. For instance, you might want to try to study for an exam in a situation that is similar to the one in which you are going to take the exam. Whereas context-dependent learning refers to a match in the external situation between learning and remembering, state-dependent learning refers to superior retrieval of memories when the individual is in the same physiological or psychological state as during encoding. Research has found, for instance, that animals that learn a maze while under the influence of one drug tend to remember their learning better when they are tested under the influence of the same drug than  when they are tested without the drug (Jackson, Koek, & Colpaert, 1992). People who learn information when they are in a bad (rather than a good) mood find it easier to recall these memories when they are tested while they are in a bad mood, and vice versa. It is easier to recall unpleasant memories than pleasant ones when we’re sad, and easier to recall pleasant memories than unpleasant ones when we’re happy (Bower, 1981; Eich,  2008). Variations in the ability to retrieve information are also seen in the serial position curve. People are able to retrieve more words that were presented to them at the beginning and the end of the list than they are words that were presented in the middle of the list. This pattern, known as the serial position curve, is caused by two retrieval phenomenon: the primacy effect refers to a tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented early in a list. The recency effect refers to the tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented later in a list. Because we can keep the last words that we learned in the presented list in short-term memory by rehearsing them before the memory test begins, they are relatively easily remembered. So the recency effect can be explained in terms of maintenance rehearsal in short term memory. And the primacy effect may also be due to rehearsal—when we hear the first word in the list we start to rehearse it, making it more likely that it will be moved from short-term to long-term memory.
Sinusitis: the paranasal sinuses are air lled spaces in the bones of the face and skull order 15caps tiova rotacap free shipping symptoms of ms, all of which communicate through openings known as ostia with the 126 F Boucher buy tiova rotacap 15 caps line treatment 3 nail fungus, S Harter and M Le Bailley order tiova rotacap 15caps with mastercard medications given during dialysis, the state of the art of paleoparasitological research in the Old World buy tiova rotacap 15 caps free shipping medicine 750 dollars, Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 2003, 98, Supplement 1, 95–101. There are four: the maxillary (also sometimes known as the antra of Highmore130), the frontal, the ethmoid (the collective name for the ethmoid air cells) and the sphenoidal. The maxillary is the largest and the ostium for drainage is situated high on the medial wall, beneath the middle turbinate. The location of the ostium means that when standing upright, the sinus cannot drain properly. If the condition becomes chronic, then bacterial infection may supervene and about three-quarters of all chronic infections are caused by three organisms: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus in uenzae,andMoraxella catarrhalis. About three-quarters of all infections of the orbit spread from the sinuses, especially the ethmoids, while osteomyelitis of the frontal bone – sometimes referred to as Pott’s puffy tumour – may be caused by frontal sinusitis which may also spread to cause an intracranial abscess. The maxillary sinuses are most frequently available for view because their anterior walls are thin and liable to be damaged during or after excavation. Chronic sinusitis in the skeleton can be inferred by the presence of new bone on the oor of the sinus. Sometimes it can be seen that the infection has spread into the sinus from an infected molar when one of the roots has penetrated the inferior wall of the sinus. Periostitis:New bone is commonly found on the skeleton, sometimes as a concomi tant of well-recognised diseases – osteomyelitis, for example – and sometimes as a lone nding. When interpreting the signi cance of the latter, clarity of thought is not always the most plentiful commodity on view. This lack of clar ity is compounded by the use of the term ‘periostitis’ to describe new bone, since this implies that it has an in ammatory origin and in much of the palaeopatho logical literature it is taken to indicate a systemic infection, particularly when found on the bones of juveniles. The periosteum is a membrane that covers the entire external surface of a bone except where the bone is covered by articular cartilage, the synovial membrane or where it forms part of a non-synovial joint such as the pubic symphysis; it is also re ected for some distance onto entheses. It consists of two discrete layers, an outer brous layers which contains blood vessels and Sharpey’s bres that anchor it rmly to the underlying bone, and an inner layer which contains undifferentiated mesenchymal cells with the potential to produce cartilage or bone-forming cells and the growth factors necessary for the formation and remodelling of new bone. It will also respond to any pathological stimulus by laying down bone and on this account it is often referred to as a ‘stress’ marker although it is clear that it may be laid down in circumstances which are not stressful. There are many causes for periosteal new bone formation, both non-in ammatory and non-infectious as may be seen in Table 6. In the middle part of the tibia it is often on the subcutaneous surface and probably results from repeated minor trauma. Periosteal new bone in actively growing children should be regarded as physiological until proved otherwise. New bone on the inner surface of the ribs: I have referred earlier to the suggestion that new bone on the pleural surface of the ribs is indicative of tuberculosis. While it seems true that individuals known to have died from tuberculosis may have new bone on the ribs, the converse is by no means always the case; that is, one cannot argue, as some have done, that nding new bone on the ribs should be taken to indicate tuberculosis. For example, a pleural effusion would be expected to gravitate towards the bottom of the chest and involve the lower ribs on the affected side. If the individual were bed-ridden, the effusion would tend to settle towards the back of the chest. Diagrams of the surface markings of the lungs and pleura and their relations to the underlying ribs are to be found in any text on clinical anatomy and could be used to map out affected areas provided the ribs are suf ciently well preserved. Some conditions in which there is a hormonal imbalance also affect bone andsomeofthesewillbeconsideredinthissection. Women lose bone at a faster rate than men at all ages but their rate of loss increases after the menopause when the depressing effect of oestrogen on the osteoclast is lost. Bone is lost more rapidly at some sites than others, and the rate of trabecular bone loss tends to be greater than the rate of cortical bone loss. If the rate of bone loss becomes too great, and particularly if much trabecular bone is lost, the risk of a fracture occurring is considerable, especially of those bones that contain a great deal of trabecular bone, most notably the distal radius, the femoral neck and the vertebrae. It is this risk of fractures that characterises the condition known as osteoporosis and in the developed countries it is a major cause of morbidity and the prevalence and the cost to the health service is likely to increase pari passu with the increasing numbers of elderly individuals in the population. It is this that makes the diagnosis dif cult for the palaeopathologist, as we will discuss later. Factors that contribute to the production of secondary osteoporosis are shown in Table 7. In a paper written in 1994, the author noted that very few general practitioners had ever seen a case. It would be of very considerable interest to know what the prevalence was in the past and whether it has actually increased in modern times, or whether the increased numbers of those with the condition is just an artefact of screening programmes. To date, however, there is no agreed way in which to diagnose osteoporosis in the skeleton. Some causes of secondary osteoporosis Dietary factors Malabsorption; starvation; scurvy Systemic disorders Diabetes; leukaemia; multiple myelomatosis; rheumatoid arthritis Endocrine disorders Cushing’s disease; growth hormone de ciency; hyperparathyroidism; hyperthyroidism Drugs Glucocorticoids; chemotherapeutic agents; anticonvulsants Thesefactorswouldhavedeclinedinimportanceinthepastasonegoesdownthetable. Radiographs of long bones frequently show cortical thinning on X-ray and some authorities have been rumoured to base a diagnosis on the weight of the bone. With the methods used to date, not only are there no data from a reference group but even if there were, who is tosaythatevenadeviationofmorethan2. It seems the only secure way of diagnosing osteoporosis in the past is by con ning the diagnosis to established osteoporosis, that is to say, to diagnose only cases in which an osteoporotic fracture is present. This will necessarily under-estimate the true prevalence but at least the diagnosis would be repeatable and comparable and could be used to measure trends, albeit the numbers likely to be found in any assemblage would be small and the con dence intervals around the prevalence wide. The index depends simply upon counting how many of these groups are visible on the X-ray, and six grades are obtained. Grade 6 is the normal appearance, all the trabeculae being visible, while grades 1–3 denote osteoporosis of increasing severity; in grade 1 only the principal compressive group 11 See Chapter 13 for further details.
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This example demonstrates the power invested in gendered identities 15caps tiova rotacap with mastercard medicine valley high school, the ways they can shape policy and how gender inequality is perpetuated via such policy purchase tiova rotacap 15caps with mastercard treatment 2015. Finally generic tiova rotacap 15 caps online medications metabolized by cyp2d6, international interventions such as peacekeeping missions also contribute to order 15caps tiova rotacap otc symptoms depression the continuation of violence post-confict and are a site in which gendered identities are produced. There have been numerous reports of peacekeepers perpetrating sexual violence against women, girls and boys while on mission. This issue gained much attention in 2015 and into 2016, when a United Nations whistle blower exposed not only reports of sexual abuse of children in the Central African Republic by French peacekeepers but also the United Nation’s inaction in the face of these reports. From a feminist perspective, the impunity that peacekeepers enjoy – despite rhetorical commitments to zero tolerance – is a result of gendered security imperatives in which militarised security and the coherence of the institution (whether that Feminism 68 be an international organisation or a state) is prioritised over the welfare of the individual. Beyond this there is also recognition that women are important agents in political, economic and social processes. Despite its designation, feminism does more than focus on women, or what are considered women’s issues. In highlighting both ineq uality and relations of power, feminism reveals gendered power and what it does in global politics. The use of ‘post’ by postcolonial scholars by no means suggests that the effects or impacts of colonial rule are now long gone. Rather, it highlights the impact that colonial and imperial histories still have in shaping a colonial way of thinking about the world and how Western forms of knowledge and power marginalise the non-Western world. Postcolonialism is not only interested in understanding the world as it is, but also as it ought to be. It is concerned with the disparities in global power and wealth accumulation and why some states and groups exercise so much power over others. This hierarchy is centred not on striving for a more equal distribution of power among peoples and states but on the concentration of power. A key theme to postcolonialism is that Western perceptions of the non-West are a result of the legacies of European colonisation and imperialism. Discourses – primarily things that are written or spoken – constructed non Western states and peoples as ‘other’ or different to the West, usually in a way that made them appear to be inferior. In doing so, they helped European powers justify their domination over other peoples in the name of bringing civilisation or progress. Postcolonialism 70 To better understand postcolonialism we can consider the discourses that make certain power relations seem natural or even inevitable. Postcolonialism views key issues in International Relations as constituting discourses of power. Postcolonialism suggests that in order to better understand how global class relations emerge and are maintained we must address ideas about why these relations appear normal. This approach points to how characterisations of global poverty are often accompanied by images and narratives of non-Western governments and societies as simultaneously primitive, hyper-masculine, aggressive, childlike and effeminate. In short, postcolonialism argues that addressing and fnding solutions to poverty and global inequality come up against representations of the other that make it diffcult for Western policymakers to shed their biases and address the underlying global structural factors such as how capital and resources are accumulated and fow around the world generating inequality. For this reason, solutions often focus only on intervening to support a seemingly less developed state, rather than addressing the underlying causes of global inequality. In analysing how key concepts such as power, the state and security serve to reproduce the status quo, postcolonialism proposes a more complex view of such concepts than is characteristic of traditional theories. For example, the concept of sovereignty, and with it the contours of the modern state, were imposed on the colonial world by European powers. Yet it is a concept that is usually taken for granted by scholars of realism and liberalism. Postcol onialism also challenges the Marxist perspective that class struggle is at the root of historical change – instead demonstrating how race shapes history. Analyses that focus only on class fail to consider how the identifcation of the ‘Third World’ (a term developed during the Cold War to describe those states unaligned to the United States or the Soviet Union) as ‘backward’, ‘primitive’ or ‘non-rational’ are linked to persistent economic marginalisation. Colonialism and imperialism fostered a long process of continued domination of the West over the rest of the world and cultural, economic and political domination still characterise global politics. Postcolonialism also demonstrates how Western views about Islam and its adherents are a manifestation of the West’s own insecurities. The rise of political Islam across the Muslim world – watermarked by Iran’s Islamic Revolution in 1979 – not only confronted neo-imperialist interventions but also 71 International Relations Theory revealed the impacts of core cultural and social shifts accompanying a more interconnected global economy. In the West, however, the view of this resurgence has been interpreted by prominent policymakers and academics as heralding a ‘clash of civilizations’ (Huntington 1993) and worse, constituting a direct threat to Western civilization. Edward Said (1997) showed how Western media, flm, academia and policy elites rely on a distorted lens or framework used to describe the history and culture of Arab peoples and adherents of Islam. He called it Orientalism because it const ructs a particular idea of the so-called ‘Orient’ that is distinct from the West and that in a binary or dualistic way of thinking ascribes to the Orient and its inhabitants characteristics that are essentially the opposite of the West. For instance, people of the Orient may be characterised as being exotic, emotional, feminine, backward, hedonistic, non-rational and so forth. This is in contrast to the more positive attributes usually associated with the West such as rationality, masculinity, civilization and modernity. Many postcolonial scholars emphasise how orientalist discourses are still visible in Western representations today. Representations and perceptions matter to postcolonial theorists because they dictate what comes to be seen as normal or as making sense. Postcolonialism owes a signifcant debt to Edward Said for his work on developing Orientalism. Yet Said himself was infuenced by the writing of anti colonial and nationalist thinkers such as Frantz Fanon (1967) and Albert Memmi (1991) whose works discuss the power of ‘othering’. For example, Fanon shows how race shapes the way that the coloniser relates to the colonised and vice versa by capturing how some people under colonial rule began to internalise – that is, identify with – ideas of racial difference that saw ‘others’ as inferior to white Europeans. Fanon explains that the ‘black man’ is made to believe in his inferiority to the ‘white colonisers’ through psycho logical aspects of colonisation, such as the imposition of the coloniser’s language, culture, religion and education systems. Through such impositions, the colonised come to believe they are a culturally inferior other.
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