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Conversely purchase genf20 plus 120 pills with mastercard zever herbals, the addition of ethosuximide may reduce serum be reversible following dosage reduction; discontinuation is rarely required57 buy 120 pills genf20 plus overnight delivery biotique herbals. Bearing this interaction in mind 120pills genf20 plus klaron herbals, the combination of sodium abnormalities generic genf20 plus 120 pills on-line wicked herbals, and acute liver necrosis58 and pancreatitis, that may be fatal and more likely to occur in children valproate and ethosuximide may be helpful in managing refractory absences65, and is probably the first- on polypharmacy, are rare. However, the main factors that hamper its use, mainly in women59, include an line treatment of myoclonic absences36. However, because of its potential to cause sedation and the problem of tolerance76, it is usually prescribed as a second-line adjunctive therapy (see table 3). Aplastic anaemia, Stevens-Johnson develops but a period of withdrawal may restore its efficacy. Renal calculi are consequent to its carbonic syndrome, renal and hepatic impairment are rare but life threatening. Dose escalation should be gradual: photosensitivity in combination or monotherapy79,80. In younger children, and in accordance with the recommendations regarding add-on lamotrigine in this age group, the initial dose is 0. This gradual initial dose titration reduces the risk nor are they designed to detect seizure worsening. Inevitably, most of the existing information on seizure of allergic skin rash, which is higher when the drug is prescribed in combination sodium valproate which aggravation relies on clinical observations on small series and case studies, and for some drugs such inhibits lamotrigine metabolism. Skin rash occurs in approximately 10% of patients, usually in the first evidence is more convincing than for others. Knowing the drugs that can aggravate idiopathic generalised eight weeks, and prompts discontinuation of the drug. Serious rashes leading to hospitalisation, including epilepsies with absences is particularly important as the vast majority have a favourable prognosis. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and hypersensitivity syndrome, occur in approximately one in 300 adults and one in 100 children67,69. Other common side effects include headache, nausea, diplopia, dizziness, ataxia Carbamazepine81, vigabatrin82, tiagabine83 and gabapentin84 are contra-indicated in the treatment of and tremor. There is no past history of absences or myoclonic epilepsy on chronic treatment with phenytoin (as part of a combination, usually with sodium valproate), jerks, including childhood and early adolescence. Absences (apart from phantom) and myoclonic seizures are not part of this syndrome. The syndrome is not A final note is reserved for the apparently unusual, although probably under-diagnosed, coexistence self-limiting, but response to appropriate antiepileptic medication is satisfactory in most patients. As both response to treatment and long-term prognosis are largely syndrome-related, it is clinically important to make as precise a syndromic diagnosis as possible, or at least attempt to form an initial working hypothesis. This is because the diagnosis may not be apparent at first presentation, and close clinical and electroencephalographic follow-up may be necessary to complete the final diagnostic jigsaw. Treatment-wise however, one can still work successfully along the lines of the tree diagram (see table 3), taking into account the type of the associated clinical seizures and their relative preponderance in terms of frequency and severity. Recognition of possible triggering factors is also essential for appropriate management. She absences and other generalised seizures occur, simple avoidance of stimulus may be sufficient, although had no history of absences, myoclonic jerks or long dyscognitive periods suggestive of absence status in some patients the addition of a small protective dose of sodium valproate may be necessary. Mapping and positional cloning of common idiopathic seizures are not part of this syndrome, and photosensitivity has not been reported. In most patients the generalized epilepsies: juvenile myoclonus epilepsy and childhood absence epilepsy. Commission of Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy. Proposal for revised clinical and response to appropriate antiepileptic medication is usually satisfactory 90. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy with generalised and other seizures in adolescence. Epilepsia Independent myoclonic seizures and phantom absences are not part of the syndrome 90. Simultaneous recording of absence seizures with video tape and electroencephalography. Idiopathic generalised epilepsy in adults manifested by phantom absences, generalised tonic-clonic seizures, and frequent absence status [see comments]. Electroclinical features of idiopathic generalised epilepsy with persisting absences in adult life. What are the relevant criteria for a better classification of epileptic syndromes with typical absences Familial occurrence of epilepsy in children with newly diagnosed multiple seizures: Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood. Classification of childhood epilepsy syndromes in newly diagnosed epilepsy: interrater department for episodes of prolonged confusion. Long-term prognosis of typical childhood absence epilepsy: remission or progression to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. The idiopathic generalized epilepsies of adolescence with childhood and juvenile age of onset. Therapeutic response of absence seizures in patients of an epilepsy clinic for adolescents and adults. Chronic acetazolamide monotherapy in the treatment of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy [see comments]. Refractory idiopathic absence status epilepticus: A probable paradoxical effect of phenytoin 48. Prognostic significance of failure of the initial antiepileptic drug in children with 88. Idiopathic epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only versus absence epilepsy.

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Porto Ale- Never let the patients feel pain during aesthetic gre 120 pills genf20 plus with mastercard herbals himalaya, Artes Medicas purchase genf20 plus 120pills fast delivery herbals stock photos, Chap 22 buy 120 pills genf20 plus otc herbs n more, p 332340 procedures buy 120 pills genf20 plus overnight delivery herbals and diabetes. De Maio M (Ed) (2004) Tratado De Medicina Esteti- that patients will refuse to continue with facial ca, M. Monash S (1957) Location of the superfcial epithe- lial barrier to skin penetration. Here, lar folds will require a fller that can be injected the best possible efect might be gained using fll- more deeply (in the deep dermis) to increase ers (Figs. Patients presenting with superfcial forehead and glabellar folds or lines might ben- eft from a fne or very fne fller that needs to 5. Examples might The forehead and glabellar areas are character- ized by extensive mimic movements of three main muscles: occipitofrontal, corrugators, and procerus. The verti- cal glabellar folds are the product of the continu- ous contraction of both corrugator muscles. The horizontal lines in the glabellar area are due to pronounced procerus muscle activity. Please be aware of the fact that the multiple injection site technique can also be too much overcorrection with hyaluronic acid or used. This technique will help to blend the fller a too superfcial injection might lead to whitish better in the surrounding area. For deep and superfcial forehead cial forehead and/or glabellar lines might require and glabellar folds, the appropriate fllers should multilevel injections. An injection below the fascia might en- courage migration of the fller (for example from the glabella to the perinasal area). Most of my fully in the glabellar area as necrosis due to the colleagues use the retrograde tunnel technique occlusion of arteries has been reported. Rzany before the fller, although both procedures can lis muscle is an attempt to correct malposition of be performed at the same time for this area. Some of the surgi- cal techniques targeting upper-third rejuvena- 5 tion present certain limitations. It has been established that well-demarcated eye- brows should arch slightly at the junction of the 5. Variations of color and texture of the hair The aesthetic forehead unit comprises the upper contribute signifcantly to the overall perception one-third of the classical facial thirds. However, it is the volume and mass vertically from the supraorbital rim to the ante- at this level that determine the uniqueness of rior hairline. Eyebrow dimensions vary widely on an ally thicker than in the lower face, and fve layers individual and ethnic basis. Eyebrow hair in the are encountered at this level: skin, subcutaneous medial one-third is full and tends to sweep up- tissue, galea aponeurotica, a part of the submus- ward and laterally. It should be noted that normal eye- The forehead and eyebrow positions are de- brow position difers from men to women and pendent on the frontal bone, the supraorbital this has to be taken into account when proper rims, and the zygoma. The action of the frontalis, correction of undesired aspects of the eyebrows corrugator, and procerus muscles also infuence is considered. The underlying bone structure, The eyebrows not only frame the upward arc rather than the sof tissues can be responsible for of the orbit but are expressive of emotions such as aesthetic problems. Any negative bone and its prominence, which can be targeted aspect concerning the eyebrow symmetry, posi- by fllers, is very important for eyebrow position. The eyebrows of eyelids and the resulting skin excess infuences should be 56 cm below the hairline. Hyperactivity of the fronta- portion of the eyebrow should lie on a perpen- the Most Common Indications Chapter 5 35 Fig. The lateral eyebrow ends at is denominated the galea aponeurotica, which an oblique line drawn from the alar base through envelops the frontalis, the occipitalis, and the the lateral canthus. The frontalis forms the frontal belly of of the eyebrow lie at the same horizontal level. In the occipitofrontal muscle and is inserted into women, the eyebrow should lie above the supra- the galea aponeurotica. The galea connects the orbital rim and in an arch shape with its high- frontalis and the occipital muscles. In the central est point at the level of the lateral limbus of the forehead, the frontalis muscles are paired and eye at approximately the junction of the medial united by the superfcial fascia. The frontalis antagonists are the cor- lower at the supraorbital rim than in women. The frontalis together and downward, producing the glabellar arises from the anterior aspect of the galea and lines. The procerus arises from the nasal bone in inserts into the skin, superfcial fascia, upper the glabella and inserts into the forehead skin. The lateral part of the pad called the galea fat pad in the glabella and orbicularis oculi depresses the eyebrow. The superfcial fat is sparse The supraorbital artery is a terminal branch of in the forehead, glabella, temporal, and orbital the ophthalmic artery from the internal carotid areas. Deep fat is dense in the temporal minal branch of the external carotid artery and and periocular areas and it is at this level where divides into two major branches. The frontal facial nerve passes posterior to the middle aspect branch of the facial nerve may be found within of the zygomatic arch, where it lies quite superf- the temporoparietal fascia, from the midportion cially beneath the subcutaneous fat. It also innervates the cephalic portion of the and Selection orbicularis oculi (Pitanguy and Ramos 1966). The supratrochlear nerve exits the orbit between the The initial consultation should include a physical periosteum and the orbital septum at the medial evaluation and provision of education about the supraorbital rim. The supraorbital nerve exits between the lateral orbital roof and a millimetric eleva- the medial and central thirds of the superior or- tion of the eyebrows.

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Seizures of unknown onset can be dened seizures (arising within networks limited to one hemisphere) generic 120 pills genf20 plus fast delivery 3-1 herbals letter draft, by the presence of motor or non-motor phenomena order genf20 plus 120 pills visa herbalshopcompanycom. An generalised seizures (arising at some point within order 120pills genf20 plus fast delivery herbals on demand reviews, and rapidly additional unclassied group is used when there is insuf- engaging order 120 pills genf20 plus mastercard herbals vitamins, bilaterally distributed networks), and seizures of cient information available for classication. The second level is the epilepsy type, which in- Motor features include tonic, atonic, clonic and epileptic spasms. Conversely, treatment may not be warranted in mild epilepsies (eg, patients with rare, non-disabling focal aware seizures). Aetiological categories, which have ually increased to the lowest effective maintenance dose to mini- important management implications, include structural, genetic, 8,10 mise adverse effects. About 50% of patients become seizure-free infectious, metabolic, immune and unknown. For focal epilepsies, carbamazepine, countries make the genetic designation problematic. However, it is unclear how many patients were on controlled release carbamazepine, which is better tolerated than Pharmacological therapy immediate release carbamazepine. However, current guidelines recommend avoiding valproic acid in women of childbearing potential whenever possible, due to higher risks of anatomical teratogenesis, including neural tube defects, and behavioural teratogenesis, namely impairedpostnatalcognitivedevelopment andautism. For the same reason (particularly due to the risk of visualelddefects),theuse ofvigabatrinisrestrictedtothe treatmentof infantilespasms. Based on this Medicinal cannabis has received considerable attention after observation, the International League Against Epilepsy dened anecdotal reports of impressive results in severe epilepsies. In a Narrative review therapy for selected patients with drug-resistant 4 General principles in the pharmacological treatment of epilepsy 20 epilepsy. These studies aim at delineating the epileptogenic zone (ie, theminimumamountofcortexwhichifresected, disconnected or destructed will result in seizure freedom) and dening the risk of post-operative morbidity. The probability of seizure freedom after epilepsy surgery depends on many factors, including epilepsy type, the results of pre-surgical in- vestigations, underlying pathology, extent of resection, and duration of follow-up. At one year, 23/40 surgically treated pa- tients (58%) were free of disabling seizures versus only 3/40 medically treated patients (8%) (P < 0. One patient in the medical group died of randomised, double-blind, add-on, placebo-controlled 14-week sudden unexpected death in epilepsy; no deaths occurred in the trial in Dravet syndrome (a severe infantile onset epilepsy), a surgical group. In similarly designed trials reported in 29 referral to an epilepsy surgery center. Of concern, however, conference abstracts, cannabidiol was superior to placebo in these recommendations have not translated to increased use of reducing drop attacks in patients with LennoxeGastaut syn- 30 24,25 epilepsy surgery. However, adoption of the classication changes varies betweenstates andterritories,as dospecicrequirementsrelatingto prescription and possession. More information can be found in the Other therapies Therapeutic Goods Administration website. A genome-wide study concluded that Disease-related factors Epilepsy (ie, seizure type, epilepsy any single common genetic variant is unlikely to explain > 4. Delivering treatments targeting the Family history molecular cause of a disease has been a long sought-after goal in Past medical history medicine. The advent of next generation sequencing has fuelled renewed hope, especially following successful models developed in Drug-related factors Comedications oncology. Epilepsy offers a promising opportunity for precision Previous adverse drug reactions medicine, due to the myriad of gene discoveries, availability of experimental in vitro and in vivo models for drugscreening, and the feasibility of conducting small, cost-effective trials of novel agents. These patients respond to the ketogenic corticographic activity is detected via a closed loop implanted diet, which provides the brain with an alternative energy substrate. These treatments can result in seizure reduction, but rarely render patients seizure-free. The ketogenic diet therapies comprise the classical ketogenic diet and the modied Atkins diet. The Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy classical diet is associated with poor long term compliance, Individuals with epilepsy are at increased risk of premature particularly in adults, and more exible diets such as the modied mortality, with seizure-related causes of death including sudden Atkins diet, in which more carbohydrate is allowed, are associated 36 unexpected death in epilepsy, status epilepticus, falls, drowning, with improved adherence. Sudden unexpected death ment of refractory status epilepticus, but early observations need in epilepsy is the main cause of death in several epilepsy pop- to be substantiated by well designed studies. Pharmacogenomics is the study of variation drowning death in patients with epilepsy, with or without evi- inthegenes encodingdrug-metabolisingenzymes,transportersand dence for a seizure and excluding documented status epilepticus, drug targets, and how these variations inuence drug disposition in which post-mortem examination does not reveal a toxicologic or 39 49 and response. For example,old seizure term/ new seizure term: complex partial / focal impaired awareness; drop attack/ (focal/generalised) atonic, (focal/generalised) tonic; petit mal (absence)/ absence; partial/ focal;primary generalised toniceclonic/ generalised toniceclonic; psychomotor / focal impaired awareness;secondarily generalised (toniceclonic)/ focal to bilateral toniceclonic; simple partial/ focal aware; (toniceclonic) grand mal/ generalised toniceclonic, focal to bilateral toniceclonic, unknown onset toniceclonic. In other individuals, seizure control can be improved by fully controls seizures in about two-thirds of patients. Hope to reduce the proportion of Competing interests: P Perucca has received honoraria from Eisai. Neurostimulation for drug- seizures and epilepsy: denitions proposed by the non-inferiority trial. Epilepsia 2005; treatment of epilepsy in girls and women of 34 Fisher R, Salanova V, Witt T, et al. Neurology 2011; 77: disability weights measurement study for the Global drug resistant epilepsy: consensus proposal by the ad 1295-1304. Cannabinoids in the treatment for the treatment of childhood epilepsy: a randomised classication of seizure types by the International of epilepsy. Neurology 2017; genetic testing to reduce the risk of carbamazepine- epilepsy in adults. Genetic variants antiepileptic drug effects in new-onset seizures: 26 Therapeutic Goods Administration.

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Methylene blue added to a hypertonic-hyperoncotic solution increases short-term survival in experimental cardiac arrest purchase genf20 plus 120 pills without a prescription herbals and vitamins. Critical time window for intra-arrest cooling with cold saline flush in a dog model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation buy genf20 plus 120 pills on-line herbs landscaping. Potential adverse effects of volume loading on perfusion of vital organs during closed-chest resuscitation generic genf20 plus 120pills fast delivery herbals laws. Intra-cardiopulmonary resuscitation hypothermia with and without volume loading in an ischemic model of cardiac arrest buy 120 pills genf20 plus visa 840 herbals. Out-of-hospital transcutaneous pacing by emergency medical technicians in patients with asystolic cardiac arrest. Immediate transthoracic pacing for cardiac asystole in an emergency department setting. Utility of pre-cordial thump for treatment of out of hospital cardiac arrest: a prospective study. Simple mechanical methods for cardioversion: defence of the precordial thump and cough version. Serial chest thumps for the treatment of ventricular tachycardia in patients with coronary artery disease. Comparison of transesophageal atrial pacing with anticholinergic drugs for the treatment of intraoperative bradycardia. The efficacy of atropine in the treatment of hemodynamically unstable bradycardia and atrioventricular block: prehospital and emergency department considerations. Effects of atropine in patients with bradyarrhythmia complicating myocardial infarction: usefulness of an optimum dose for overdrive. Atropine often results in complete atrioventricular block or sinus arrest after cardiac transplantation: an unpredictable and dose-independent phenomenon. Transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: comparison of rectilinear biphasic versus damped sine wave monophasic shocks. Biphasic versus monophasic shock waveform for conversion of atrial fibrillation: the results of an international randomized, double-blind multicenter trial. Comparison of monophasic and biphasic shocks for transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Reisinger J, Gstrein C, Winter T, Zeindlhofer E, Hollinger K, Mori M, Schiller A, Winter A, Geiger H, Siostrzonek P. Optimization of initial energy for cardioversion of atrial tachyarrhythmias with biphasic shocks. Energy, current, and success in defibrillation and cardioversion: clinical studies using an automated impedance-based method of energy adjustment. Comparison of treatment of supraventricular tachycardia by Valsalva maneuver and carotid sinus massage. Electrophysiological mechanisms and determinants of vagal maneuvers for termination of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in the emergency department by clinical decision analysis. Adenosine for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia: dose ranging and comparison with verapamil: assessment in placebo-controlled, multicenter trials. Slow infusion of calcium channel blockers compared with intravenous adenosine in the emergency treatment of supraventricular tachycardia. Adenosine versus verapamil in the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia: a randomized double-crossover trial. Comparative double-blind randomized study in patients with spontaneous or inducible arrhythmias. Treatment of out-of-hospital supraventricular tachycardia: adenosine vs verapamil. Glatter K, Cheng J, Dorostkar P, Modin G, Talwar S, Al-Nimri M, Lee R, Saxon L, Lesh M, Scheinman M. Electrophysiologic effects of adenosine in patients with supraventricular tachycardia. Intravenous adenosine in the emergency department management of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Adenosine for the prehospital treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Safety and efficacy of central intravenous bolus administration of adenosine for termination of supraventricular tachycardia. Adenosine in the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia: 5 years of experience (20022006). Adenosine: a clinical experience and comparison with verapamil for the termination of supraventricular tachycardias. Efficacy of intravenous adenosine in treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in the local population. A comparison of adenosine and verapamil for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia in the prehospital setting. Intravenous amiodarone is safe and seems to be effective in termination of paroxysmal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Slow-infusion of calcium channel blockers in the emergency management of supraventricular tachycardia.

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The majority of previous cross-sectional studies have inferred that more severe hippocampal damage is associated with a longer duration of epilepsy and a greater number of seizures cheap genf20 plus 120 pills without a prescription vaadi herbals products review. Improved gradient performance is anticipated to improve speed and spatial resolution discount 120pills genf20 plus otc zen herbals. Phased array Two recent studies have suggested atrophy of the hippocampus occurring over three years of active surface coils improve signal-to-noise ratio in superficial cortex and hippocampal regions and this may epilepsy in patients attending epilepsy clinics30 cheap 120 pills genf20 plus visa herbals baikal,31 purchase genf20 plus 120pills with visa herbals in hindi. The utility of higher field strength scanners, up to 7T, is also being evaluated and may A large community-based study has shown that those with a history of a prior neurological insult had provide further insights into subtle structural abnormalities187. Patients with chronic epilepsy, however, were more likely to have had significant loss of Voxel-based morphometry may demonstrate areas of hippocampal atrophy in individual patients with 32 clear-cut hippocampal sclerosis51 but for the detection of occult abnormalities in individual patients neocortical, hippocampal or cerebellar volume over 3. Further, on a more sensitive voxel-based it appears to be relatively insensitive at thresholds that do not give false positive results52. These methods analysis, 54% of those with chronic epilepsy, 39% of those with newly diagnosed seizures and 24% of controls had areas of brain volume loss33. These studies implied that secondary brain damage might are complemented by anatomical atlases, which allow quantification of brain imaging data on a lobar and sub-lobar basis53,54. Analysis of the texture of the neocortex on a T1-weighted volume scan may give occur in the context of chronic epilepsy. The next step is to identify the aetiological factors and how increased sensitivity to identify focal cortical dyplasia27. Curvilinear reconstructions may increase the to intervene to prevent this process. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the neocortex may assist may differ from the pattern in normal subjects. These data may be helpful in the planning of neocortical visualisation of abnormalities and surgical planning56, and this can now be automated57. The most statistically significant haemodynamic cluster within the presumed seizure onset zone was between 1. Resection of this region was associated with a good more reliable than a single task75,76. Artefacts and technical difficulties may adversely affect both methods surgical outcome188. Further, identification of the areas of brain involved in language is not the same as determining if someone can speak when half of the brain is anaesthetised. Focal increases in cerebral blood delivery have been identified in patients with frequent inter-ictal spikes5860. However, even in well-selected comprehension activated the superior temporal gyri, and verbal fluency and verb generation tasks activated patients, approximately 50% do not exhibit inter-ictal epileptiform discharges during the 10-60 minute the left inferior and middle frontal gyri and left insula81. Of the remaining patients, approximately 5090% lead to significant signal changes and wider activations than verb generation82. These data may assist in planning surgical resections in the which are concordant with electroclinical data63,64,189. Absence of activation on one who have, for example, been previously rejected for epilepsy surgery65. Conversely, an area that is activated may have only a peripheral and non-essential role in verbal communication. The most recent and largest of these studies reported 76 patients with refractory focal epilepsy, 33 of whom had extratemporal lobe epilepsy. No discharges were seen during the 35-60 minute acquisition Left temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with increased likelihood of expressive language activation in in 64% of the patients. The mean number of discharges during the recording in the remaining patients the right frontal lobe, and atypical dominance is more likely with early onset of epilepsy83. Ten patients underwent surgical treatment, seven of whom achieved seizure freedom. In six lesions close to Brocas area expressive language function may be shown in perilesional cortex84. Interestingly, in the remaining three patients who continued to have seizures which needs to be taken into account when planning surgical treatment close to language areas. Also, greater left than right posterior hippocampal 109 malformations of cortical development. Subsequently, left and right temporal lobe epilepsy patients across both verbal and visual domains. Glutamate is also an intermediary metabolite, and present creatine + phosphocreatine, reflecting neuronal loss or dysfunction and astrocytosis98. Discrimination between glutamate and glutamine in vivo on clinical scanners requires 40% having bilateral abnormalities. The advantage of this development is that the interval between seizure onset and tracer delivery to the brain can be significantly reduced. The interval between seizure onset and injection may also be shortened by the focus. With the inevitable interval between injection and fixation of the tracer in the brain, however, it may not be possible to obtain true ictal studies. The place of the investigation is in the presurgical work-up of patients with refractory partial localising information in patients with partial seizures. In addition, quantitative analysis of data, with correction for partial volume effects add and lateral temporal hypoperfusion. Varying patterns have been seen in patients with autosomal dominant frontal lobe epilepsy131. The results of comparative studies depend critically 1-2 minutes after the onset of a seizure may indicate other than the site of onset.