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The electromagnetic device consists of an active broadcaster and a receiving coil generic 180mg cartia xt amex arteries rerouting themselves. The magnetic field is broad cast to order 180 mg cartia xt with amex 2 blood vessels in the heart the soil order cartia xt 180 mg fast delivery cardiovascular disease biomarkers, changes over time and creates electrical currents purchase cartia xt 180 mg fast delivery capillaries in fingers, called Eddy cranes, in the substrata. The electrical force is received by the receiver and, using a formula for cal culating the differences between the current and the voltage recorded, the electrical conductivity of the subsoil can be calculated, to the penetrated depth (Parasnis 1997, 194–245). Archaeologists use electromagnetic frequency technol ogy, which is more sensitive to objects close to the surface (Herz and Garisson 1998, 157–64). This technology is intended for searching for irregularities, in cluding architectural elements, but relatively large ones. Ground penetrating radar is based on the broadcasting of electromagnetic waves to the desired area in microwave frequen cies, and the reception of the waves returned to the surface (usually using the same antenna). This is an active geophysical method and the most advanced of all the geophysical methods. These are dependent on the type and structure of the material and its water content. In underground mapping, the amplitude and transmission time of the returned waves is measured, and the type of antenna is selected in accordance with the size and depth of the target object in the area being scanned. The lower the broadcasting frequency, the deeper the pen etration (Conyers and Goodman 1997; Conyers 2004, 2009). Archaeologists use radar for identifying sites (Nobes 1999), hollows (Batey 1987), architecture (Leucci and Negri 2006), various soil layers (Weinstein Evron, Beck, and Ezersky 2003), et cetera. There are aerial and satellite photographs that use a variety of sensors and platforms, as well as field photography, such as thermal photography (Cam pana 2009). The mapping of a site is conducted using total station systems, and advanced mapping includes laser point clouds that map an entire area hermetically (Oswin 2009). The sensors can be mounted on satellites or various types of aircraft, which also have an effect on the resolution 540 Appendix: Survey of Scientific Methods in Archaeology Fig. The wall is marked with a solid line and the rampart is marked with a dashed line. Aerial and satellite photographs can be processed, particularly using color presentations. Sometimes color changes provide the contrast in the ground re quired to assist archaeologists. Employing an additional sensing method will increase the certainty of the findings (Beck, Wilkinson, and Philip 2007; Beck 2007; Lasa ponara et al. Aerial photography is used mainly for identifying archeological sites and un derstanding their outlines (Campana 2009; Parcak 2009, 147–73; Salvi et al. It is noteworthy that aerial photography is not particularly efficient for iden tifying the remains of walls and has led to partial success when the remains of Yair Sapir, with Shani Libi 541 walls above the surface have been covered with fresh soil (Masini et al. Aerial photography is also helpful in height mapping, which contributes to the stratigraphy of the site (Kedar and Danin 2000, 150–60). While in the past it was treated as a material that disturbs the exposure of the “interesting” remains only, in the past few decades, it is becoming a very important source of data. The sub field that deals with dirt in an archaeological context is called geoarchaeology. Geoarchaeology mainly studies rocks and dirt, the latter of which can be sub divided into soil or sediment. Soil is the outcome of weathering that occurs near the surface and in situ, and its formation requires long term stability. Sediments are transported from one location to another by natural or cultural processes, and generally include almost all the matrix of the archaeological layers. In its widest sense, geoarchaeology may include all the subfields of the ar chaeological sciences that are used for archaeological research. Here, however, we will deal with its narrower and more common meaning: the combined study of archaeological and geomorphological records and of the processes, both natural and cultural, that alter the landscape as a whole. The main aim of geoarchaeology is to construct integrated models of human-environmental systems and to study both human and natural impacts on the landscape. While it needs to combine sup port of several other sets of data, a good understanding of geoarchaeology is essential for “reading” the landscape as well as to provide context to the archaeo logical record. The largest scale is landscape, which includes sites and their environment; a smaller scale is archaeological layers and fills; and finally, there is the micro scopic context. Natural processes and human activities may change the properties of the sediments in various ways, and therefore studying the variability of the sediments has implications for understanding the past. This variability can be traced by measuring parameters that may differentiate between sites and their en vironment, between loci, dirt-features and layers. Geoarchaeological research uses various tools and methods, here we will briefly outline some of them, with a look at what substances each method focuses on. Occasionally, buried soils exist in archaeological sites, but their identification can be done only by analytical meth ods. Naturally, the values should be higher at the surface and decrease with depth, and the identification of such trends in deeper strata can indicate a buried surface. An assemblage of grains that is dominated by large particle sizes is one that was brought by high-energy such as river transport or by strong winds. In contrast, airborne dust (loess) and slow river flow have finer characteristic par ticle deposition. Texture may be studied in sections of an archaeological excavation, in drilled cores, or in sections of a stream channel embankment.

The first and second years are devoted primar Furthermore purchase cartia xt 180 mg amex cardiovascular system of embryo, chiropractic must be viewed as a profession order cartia xt 180 mg with visa capillaries under nose, not a ily to generic cartia xt 180 mg on line capillaries location basic sciences cartia xt 180 mg otc cardiovascular disease blood test, chiropractic principles, and technique skill procedure. The third year emphasizes clinical and chiropractic tions underlying conceptions of reality and truth but not con sciences and prepares students for the transition into their fourth fuse them with the search for scientific truths, which are never year and practical clinical experience treating the public in the col absolute but remain forever tentative and approximate. Government inquiries and comparative evaluations traditional language of the philosophy of chiropractic might be have determined that the coursework and hours of instruction in revised to more closely coincide with the current language in the the basic sciences are very similar between chiropractic and medi biologic and life sciences without loss of appropriate philosophic cal schools. The Flexner Report, released standards with which a chiropractic educational institution must in 1910, had a profound effect on chiropractic education. In recognition of their of that report to begin the same types of changes that medicine potential uniqueness, each program may be given some latitude underwent to improve its education. However, the changes were not long in coming, however, once their compliance with all requirements must be fulfilled by each accred need was recognized. Educational and philosophic differ tions to use a 2-year preprofessional educational experience as a ences between schools can dramatically affect the curriculum and requirement for matriculation. Department of Education, between college programs rests with those that ascribe to evidence regional accrediting bodies have reviewed chiropractic college pro based education and those that rely on joint “subluxation-based” grams, and all but two of the programs within the United States have or “philosophy-based” education. The self-evaluation and accreditation pro Each institution must teach its students to adjust, but the pro cess allowed chiropractic institutions to upgrade their professional cedures and intent taught at one college may differ from those 6 | Chiropractic Technique taught at other institutions. A graduate of one college may petency examination, which tests candidates on x-ray interpreta find it difficult to share information with the graduate of a differ tion and diagnosis, chiropractic technique, and case management. Furthermore, a plethora of techniques is available in the to take a jurisprudence examination covering that state’s practice form of postgraduate seminars, many of which are not governed act and administrative rules. Chiropractic practice in the United States is regulated their results and began to ask why those results occurred founded by state statute and by each state’s board of chiropractic exam the majority of chiropractic technique systems. Chiropractic practice acts define the practice of chiroprac “bootstrapping” effort; the impetus to gain new knowledge and tic locally and establish regulations for licensure, discipline, and then disseminate it was largely self-driven. These approaches typi scope of practice for all 60 jurisdictions in North America. These early commendable efforts are limited by the state practice acts and the interpretation of what constitutes each fact that they are often based on a biologically questionable or sin state’s practice act and scope of practice are profound and bewil gular and simplistic rationale with little or absent systematic clinical dering. The human body is a very complex and inte many chiropractors to be regarded as a unified profession with grated organism, and to rely on a single evaluative or treatment pro clearly established standards of practice and treatment. This text hopes to improve the educational but also demonstrated a lack of consensus within the profession, environment by providing a foundation of fundamental standards which causes confusion for the profession itself, for those seeking and psychomotor skills that are common to all adjustive thrust tech services from the profession, and for those who conduct business niques. A list of most of the named chiropractic techniques is pro with members of the profession. Chiropractic education continues to be innovative and to advance, Chiropractors are licensed as primary contact portal of entry pro as demonstrated by the growing adoption of evidence-based practice viders in all 50 states. The initial round of funding was can order special tests if permitted by state law. In the first round of funding, five insti cally incorporate other therapeutic intervention such as counsel tutions were awarded partnership grants. Management or funded institutions were chiropractic colleges (National University comanagement of patients with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipi of Health Sciences and Western States Chiropractic College) and demia are a few examples. A majority of chiroprac increased and that medical students are more confident in their tors (77%) state they have had a referral from a medical doctor. Approximately 50% of health ing the preceding 5 years, with membership in the Consortium maintenance and 75% of private health insurance plans cover of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine increasing chiropractic. This legislation was prompted by an inde pendent demonstration project funded by the U. Department Federal recognition and funding increased dramatically during the of Defense on Chiropractic Health Care. This project produced 1990s, with a number of institutions receiving federally funded data confirming the cost-effectiveness of chiropractic services, grants and monies allocated for the development of a research with patients reporting chiropractic care to be as good as or bet center and annually funded research workshops. Congress enacted a bill to provide chiropractic Research Agenda Conference) occurred in the summer of 1996. Five specific areas of chiropractic research were examined: clinical Chiropractic services are in the process of being established in all research, basic research, educational research, outcomes research, communities in the United States and worldwide where there are and health services research. Barriers to research A report from the Veterans Health Administration Office of and opportunities for research were discussed at length; obviously, Public Health and Occupational Hazards cites musculoskeletal one desire of the attendees was to find ways to overcome those injuries as the number-one complaint (41. Complementary and alternative health care and February 7, 1990, in the Seventh Circuit U. This was despite the fact that chiropractic care disseminating authoritative information. Although opposition to inclusion of chiropractic was initially In 2006 a group of the profession’s leading researchers under profound, it has been gradually waning. Staff privileges are being took a comprehensive decade review of the research accom sought and gained by more and more chiropractors. The program addressed a variety of topics related to the momentum generated by the Mercy Conference and generate technique validation, followed by several roundtable and panel current and equitable evidence-based guidelines, the Council on discussions related to the way such validation might occur. The project summary document for the chiropractic profession and other involved four stages of study: one to review the literature concern related stakeholders. Appropriate therapeutic approaches will priateness of a number of indications for the use of manipulation consider the literature synthesis as well as clinical experience, cou in treating low back pain, a third to convene a second panel solely pled with patient preferences in determining the most appropriate composed of chiropractors to rate those same indications, and a course of care for a specific patient. After several years of work the fourth to analyze the services of practicing chiropractors. The Manga report51 examined the effectiveness and cost A similar project with parallel results examined the appropri ateness of manipulation of the cervical spine.

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It is a good exercise to buy cartia xt 180 mg visa blood vessels quiz verify that C0 is always a sheaf and that K is not a sheaf X on a disconnected space purchase 180mg cartia xt otc cardiovascular system veins. In this book cartia xt 180 mg mastercard coronary heart zeppish, our spaces are nearly always smooth manifolds 180mg cartia xt free shipping cardiovascular system and circulatory system, and most of our sheaves arise in the following way. Let E denote the presheaf where E (U) is the vector space of smooth sections E|U > U on the open set U. A cosheaf is a precosheaf such that for every open U and every cover U = iI of U, we have a a colim G(Vi Vj) G(Vi) > G(U), i,jI iI where the map into G(U) is the coproduct of the extension maps from the Vi to U and where, in the colimit diagram, the top arrow is extension from Vi Vj to Vi and the bottom arrow is extension from Vi Vj to V. If U V, we can extend a section s Ec(U) to a section extUV(s) Ec(V) on V by setting it equal to zero on V U. A closely related example is the cosheaf of compactly-supported distributions dual to the sheaf E of smooth sections of a bundle. When E denotes the sheaf of elds for a eld theory, this cosheaf describes the linear observables on the elds and, importantly for us, organizes them by their support. Often, we want our sheaves or cosheaves to take values in categories of a homotopical nature. For instance, we might assign a cochain complex to each open set, rather than a mere vector space. In this homo topical setting, one typically works with a modied version of the gluing axioms above. The modications are twofold: ((i)) we work with all nite intersections of the opens in the cover. The rst modication is straightforward — and familiar to anyone who has seen a Cech complex — but the second is more subtle. Given a cover cover U = of an open U, the Cech complex C (U, G) is the totalization i iI of the following double cochain complex: take the cochain complex, with values in dg vector spaces, whose nth term is M n G(j=0Vij), ~iIn+1 which has an internal dierential inherited from G, and whose “external” dieren tial is the alternating sum of the structure maps for the inclusion of an n + 1-fold intersection into an n-fold intersection. We write M M n C(U, G) = Tot G( Vi)[n], j=0 j n=0 ~iIn+1 as a compact description. Observe that there is a canonical map from C(U, G) to G(U) given by the sum of the structure maps from G(Ui) to G(U). For dg vector spaces (or, more generally, cochain complexes of modules over a ring), one can deduce this assertion from standard results in homotopical algebra. We provide an argu ment in the more general setting of cochain complexes in a Grothendieck abelian category in Section 5. Our arguments are simple modications of the standard arguments for why smooth sections of a vector bundle form both a sheaf and a homotopy sheaf. A partition of unity on a smooth manifold M subordinate to an open cover iI is a collection iI of nonnegative smooth functions such that (1) every point x M has a neighborhood in which all but nitely many i vanish, P (2) the sum i i = 1, and (3) supp i Ui for all i I. Let Vc denote the precosheaf that assigns to the open U M the vector space Vc(U) of compactly-supported smooth sections of V on U. Let exti: Vc(Ui) > Vc(U) denote the extension-by-zero maps dening the precosheaf structure of Vc. Then the map X M exti: Vc(Ui) > Vc(U) i i induces a map M M (†) extI: colim Vc(Ui U j) Vc(Ui) > Vc(U) i,jI iI since the extension from Ui U j to U factors injectively through both Ui and U j. To show that Vc is a cosheaf, we need to show that the map extI is an isomor phism. A choice of partition of unity allows us to split the map extI, and thus it becomes straightforward to verify the isomorphism. If we denote this quotient space by Q, then we have an exact sequence M f M Vc(Ui U j) > Vc(Ui) > Q > 0, i,j i where f denotes the dierence of the two maps in the colimit appearing in (†). To show it is a left inverse to extI, we will show that every element v in Vi c(Ui) is in the same P P equivalence class as i i i exti(v), i. It suces to verify this for a particularly simple class of elements that span Vi c(Ui). Fix an index k I and let v = (vi) Vi c(Ui) have the property that P P vi = 0 if i, k. We want to show that v and v map to the same element in Q, so we need their dierence to live in image of f. Consider the element w = (wij) in i,jVc(UiU j) where wik = ivk for P all i and wij = 0 for j, k. Then f (w) = (f (w)) is given byi f (w)i = j(wij wji) and so f (w)i = ivk for i, k and X f (w)k = kvk jvk = kvk vk. The argument above is interesting because it shows not only that Vc is a cosheaf but exhibits an explicit decomposition of a section into sections on the cover, by using a partition of unity. Let U = iI be an open cover of an open U M, and let iI be a partition of unity subordinate to the cover. There is a cochain homotopy equivalence between C(U, Vc) and Vc(U) where the cochain map X = extU U: C(U, Vc) > Vc(U) i i is determined by the extension maps. Explicitly, vanishes on an element of Vc(Ui0 · · · Uin) for n > 0 and it sends an element of Vc(Ui) to its extension by zero. Recall that a cochain map induces a cochain homotopy equiv alence if and only if the mapping cone admits a contracting cochain homotopy. We will thus show instead that the “augmented” cochain complex given by the cone of admits a contracting homotopy K. The cone is obtained by putting Vc(U) in degree 1 and making the dierential from degree 0 to degree 1. It is quick to see that the construction ap plies to any smooth graded vector bundle. In the case of the de Rham complex, they explicitly provide the cochain homotopy as the “Collating Formula,” Proposition 9. Nearly any modern book on dierential or algebraic ge ometry contains an introduction to sheaves. The classic text Bott and Tu (1982) explores in depth the sheaf of smooth sections of a vector bundle, but typically via the example of the de Rham 250 A.

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It was probably Judah’s largest single pasture because of its unique geomorphologic and environmental characteristics order 180mg cartia xt with visa cardiovascular disease leads to stroke. As it was located near the border with Philistia cheap 180 mg cartia xt visa blood vessels return blood to the heart, it had to cheap cartia xt 180mg line blood vessels close to surface be protected by the same forts that protected the important trade roads in addition to purchase cartia xt 180 mg otc cardiovascular kidney serving as the early warning line in defense of Lachish. Sheep, goats, and probably horses were the valuable commodities being raised and nurtured for the crown, who probably di rectly controlled every aspect of their care and movement. In the end, therefore, we have discarded the former agrarian model with which we had multiple problems and replaced it with a model based on grasslands and pastoralism. Now with this new perspective, or paradigm, we can launch new research initiative seeking to improve and clarify this understanding of the region until it, too, as Kuhn would acknowledge, comes up wanting. Atlas of Israel: Cartography, Physical Geography, Human and Economic Geography and History. Bakker, Johan, Etienne Paulissen, David Kaniewski, Jeroen Poblome, Veronique De Laet, Gert Verstraeten, and Marc Waelkens. Coming to Recognize that Farming Was Rarely Practiced in Hesi 259 Bellorini, Theophilus, O. Visit to the Holy Places of Egypt, Sinai, Palestine and Syria in 1384 by Frescobaldi, Gucci & Sigoli. Recueil de Voyages et de Documents pour Servir a l’His toire de la Geographie 12. The Collapse of the Eastern Mediterranean: Climate Change and the Decline of the East, 950–1072. Living on the Fringe: the Archaeology and History of the Negev, Sinai, and Neighboring Regions in the Bronze and the Iron Ages. Arab Demography and Early Jewish Settlement in Palestine: Dis tribution and Population Density during the Late Ottoman and Early Mandate Periods [Hebrew]. John Rufus: the Lives of Peter the Ibe rian, Theodosius of Jerusalem, and the Monk Romanus. Coming to Recognize that Farming Was Rarely Practiced in Hesi 261 Hutteroth, Wolf-Dieter, and Kamal Abdulfattah. Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late Sixteenth Century. All That Remains: the Palestinian Villages Occupied and De populated by Israel in 1948. Coming to Recognize that Farming Was Rarely Practiced in Hesi 263 Ziv, Baruch, Hadas Saaroni, Roee Pargament, Tzvi Harpaz, and Pinhas Alpert. More than any other archaeologist working in the southern Levant, Oded Borowski has dedicated his career to advancing our understanding of an cient Israelite agricultural practices (Borowski 2002) and animal husbandry (Borowski 1998); in particular, his Daily Life in Biblical Times (2003) is an im portant resource for students and specialists looking for an accessible introduction to a wide variety of topics, from ways of life in rural and urban settings to lifecycle 1 events, the arts, and more. The logistical reali ties of excavating in late nineteenth and early twentieth century Palestine and Transjordan placed many early archaeologists in village communities in close contact with local people and their customs. Exposure to traditional lifeways clearly influenced how archaeological remains were interpreted by foreign ar chaeologists working in the region, and archaeologists sometimes explained what 1. Oded’s work provided the inspiration and background for much of my own research into issues of ancient daily life and I have benefitted from his support and generosity for nearly two decades. Macalister observed the cus toms of Palestinian villagers and thought they offered a window to ancient behavior. In doing so, he made a “uniformitarian assumption,” namely that “in the ‘unchanging East’ the ways of the modern villagers were identical to those of their remote ancestors” (Chapman 1991, 220). Conflating the past and present is prob lematic because it implies that ancient technologies continued to be used by twentieth century Palestinians. In the early days of Palestinian archaeology, it bol stered the myth of the timeless, unchanging Arab that was popular at the time. Outside of archaeology, descriptions in contemporary travel journals and staged photographs of Palestinian women performing activities of daily life like fetching water at the well and grinding grain were linked explicitly to the biblical past. Eric and Edith Matson collection some times have scriptural references associated with them, like a staged photo of two women using a rotary millstone to grind grain that reads “Two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left (Matt 24:41)” (fig. Other photographs in the collection illustrate biblical stories, like scenes from the Book of Ruth that were staged using Palestinian models (fig. Photographs like these were used as illustrations in Bibles published at the time and such scenes probably entered readers’ subconscious as representations of how ancient life re ally was. Apparently influenced by this trend, a few foreign and local archaeologists included their own staged photographs of Palestinian and North African women “using” ancient artifacts in excavation reports, even when the technology had been obsolete for millennia (Ebeling and Rogel 2015, 346). A number of early foreign archaeologists, including but not limited to the Protestant clergymen who directed and participated in American excavations in Palestine in the first half of the twentieth century, saw archaeology’s potential for illustrating biblical passages, and their research aims included searching for ar chaeological evidence of specific biblical people and events. This began to change in the mid-twentieth century as more broadly-trained scholars began directing digs, and methodologies developed elsewhere were adopted in Israel and Jordan. As the field continued to expand and diversify in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, and changing geo-political realities and widespread mod ernization presented fewer opportunities to observe pre-modern lifestyles in the region, some archaeologists began to employ ethnoarchaeological approaches. Although contemporary practices cannot be equated to ancient ones, observing traditional pottery making techniques with specific archaeological questions in mind, for example, provides useful analogies for interpreting ancient remains. Despite the use of archaeological and other non-biblical sources in their reconstructions of ancient daily life, most—but not all—of the authors continued to rely on biblical passages as a primary source of information. In doing so, they perpetuated the androcentric and urban biases of the biblical writers. At the same time, recent household archaeology studies have narrowed the focus of archaeological investigation from monumental architecture and fortification sys tems to domestic buildings and associated outdoor spaces. This approach has led archaeologists to ask different questions of the data, take advantage of new analytical techniques, and offer insights into the minutiae of daily life and the gendered associations of eve ryday activities represented in domestic settings like grinding grain, baking bread, and producing textiles. It is now possible to know a great deal about the daily lives of those who lived in ancient Israel and Judah—how they built their houses and used domestic space, prepared food and drink, made and used the tools required in daily life activities, etc.