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This hemisphere observation is consistent with the neurological literature and While the right hemisphere of some patients clearly has a Amytal (amylobarbital) studies cheap 150 mg rulide with visa, in which the left hemisphere lexicon discount rulide 150 mg on-line, these right hemispheres perform erratically in other is the dominant hemisphere for language and speech aspects of language buy 150mg rulide, such as understanding verbs cheap 150 mg rulide with amex, (Lenneberg, 1967). While there is always possess some language has not been able to use word order an initially dominant hemisphere after brain bisection, some to understand phrases (Gazzaniga et al. At the same patients have developed the capacity to make one-word time these right hemispheres can indicate when a sentence utterances from the disconnected right hemisphere (Gazzaniga ends with a semantically odd word (Kutas et al. Thus, even though they cannot use syntax response to stimulation of the left visual eld soon after the to understand sentences, they can judge that some utterances completion of surgery, patient J. If we are correct that hemisphere capacity until 10 years after his surgery (Baynes the right hemisphere has the means to encode static lexical et al. This change so long information but not productive grammar, this unexpected after surgery opens up new questions regarding behavioural nding would indicate that patterns of speech are learned by plasticity in the adult brain. Yet, recognizing the surface sound pattern of acceptable utterances does not mean that a neural system can use this information to assist in deriving meaning from a sentence. Some right hemispheres can develop a writing In both lexicon and grammar, the right hemisphere possesses system some passive recognition abilities but does not employ them A passive writing system can develop in the right hemisphere. One left-handed patient became agraphic (could not write Callosum and cerebral specialization 1315 Fig. Following full callosal section she was able to verbalize material presented to her left hemisphere but not material presented to her right hemisphere. At the same time, she was unable to write words presented to her left hemisphere but was able to write words presented to her right hemisphere. This dissociation suggests that an intact phonological system is not a prerequisite for writing (adapted from Baynes et al. Five years after the the left hemisphere is specialized for intelligent surgery she remains unable to write at will, although she can behaviour produce her signature. When words are ashed to her and Gazzaniga, 1987; Zaidel, 1991) and the problem-solving right hemisphere, she cannot say them but her left hand can capacity, such as seen in hypothesis-formation tasks, remains usually write them (Baynes et al. This patient other performance measures, the capacity for problem-solving also shows semantic priming in her right hemisphere. In other words, isolating essentially half she is faster at recognizing words if they are preceded by of the cortex from the dominant left hemisphere causes related words), indicating a semantic network in her right no major change in cognitive functions. Nonetheless, without the executive skills of unchanged from its preoperative capacity, yet the largely her dominant left hemisphere, her writing remains isolated disconnected, same-size right hemisphere is seriously (modular) and useless in the non-dominant hemisphere. While the right hemisphere remains superior to the isolated left hemisphere for some perceptual and attentional skills, and perhaps also emotions, it is poor at problem-solving and many other mental activities. Studies related to issues of consciousness A brain system (the right hemisphere) with roughly the same Classical split-brain research has revealed the many number of neurons as one that easily cogitates (the left distinctive functions of the left and right hemispheres. By hemisphere) is incapable of higher order cognition— testing each disconnected hemisphere, one can assess the convincing evidence that cortical cell number by itself cannot different capacities each might possess. Although split-brain research has elucidated the left hemisphere is dominant for hypothesis many hemispheric differences in basic attentional, perceptual formation and cognitive functions, what have we learned about how the difference between the two hemispheres in problem the two hemispheres interact to make us integrated, sentient solving is revealed in a probability-guessing experiment. Can split-brain patients perhaps give us a window this paradigm, subjects try to guess which of two events will into the nature of human consciousness We and a green 25% of the time) but the order of occurrence of called this left hemisphere process ‘the interpreter’ (Fig. There are two possible strategies this same general idea has been observed when the left for responding in this task: matching and maximizing. In brain interpreter struggles to cope with mood shifts produced the red/green example, frequency matching would involve experimentally by manipulating the disconnected right guessing red 75% of the time and guessing green 25% of hemisphere. Since the order of occurrence is entirely random, hemisphere nds the left interpreting its current experience this strategy could potentially result in a great deal of error. In a similar manner, when the right triggers the second strategy, maximizing, involves simply guessing a negative mood, the left interprets a previously neutral red every time. Animals such as rats and observation of this kind, an arousing stimulus was shown to gold sh maximize. The anything, while at the same time suddenly claiming she was human’s use of this suboptimal strategy has been attributed upset and that the experimenter was upsetting her. Here, the to a propensity to try to nd patterns in sequences of events, left hemisphere felt the valence of the emotional response even when told the sequences are random. Nonetheless, it immediately colleagues (2000) tested the two hemispheres of split-brain constructed a theory to explain the emotional state patients in this type of probability-guessing paradigm. They found that the left hemisphere used the frequency-matching strategy whereas the right hemisphere maximized (Fig. Their interpretation was that the right hemisphere’s accuracy the relationship between the interpreter and was higher than the left’s because the right hemisphere conscious experience approaches the task in the simplest possible manner with no Decades of split-brain research have revealed the specialized attempt to form complicated hypotheses about the task. The functions of the two hemispheres, as well as providing left hemisphere, on the other hand, engages in the human insights into specialization within each hemisphere. Our uniquely human in forming hypotheses about the sequence of events even in skills may well be produced by minute, circumscribed the face of evidence that no pattern exists. Why would the neuronal networks, sometimes referred to as ‘modules’, but left hemisphere do this even when it can be non-adaptive If we are merely a collection of specialized modules, how does that powerful, almost self-evident feeling come about The answer may lie the left hemisphere possesses a unique capacity in the left hemisphere interpreter and its drive to seek to interpret behaviour and unconsciously driven explanations for why events occur.
Therefore buy rulide 150 mg low price, there are to discount rulide 150 mg on line generate speech from her left hemisphere is evidence for interhemispheric integra areas of the callosum dedicated to best rulide 150 mg the trans but not from her right18 buy rulide 150 mg online, and, conversely, is tion, even when the cortical commissures fer of visual information, somatosensory able to generate written language from her have been severed27. This simple fact alerts us to the and other factors also influence the measure differences that exist among homologous ment of the direction and magnitude of structures as we attempt to build animal water diffusion48,53. Studies of patients with ance of a task that required interhemispheric partial callosal lesions show that the callosum transfer to explore individual differences in is organized in a specific way, with the more callosal transmission54. Healthy participants topographical organization of the corpus posterior regions transferring basic sensory were asked to identify objects presented from callosum34–36. Successful completion of this brings us to the present era and to tion and somatosensory information35,45,46, this task requires information transfer from why there is new excitement about unearth whereas the more anterior regions seem to the right parietal cortex, which is responsi ing the networks of the brain and developing be involved in the transfer of attentional ble for recognizing objects in unusual ori a deeper understanding of the mind. The resources and higher cognitive informa entations55, to the left inferior frontal cortex, evolution of split-brain testing has led us tion47. Split-brain whereas longer reaction times were associ research is informing neuroimaging studies other methodologies. These and is providing the basis for interpreting findings indicate that there are two callosal neuroimaging results. This between the parietal cortices, and a slower techniques, identify processing networks neuroimaging technique provides a way of anterior pathway between the inferior fron that involve both hemispheres, and also characterizing the structural organization of tal cortices. In the brain, water At present, Molly Colvin is expanding this nisms of cognition. In white matter, water measures of interhemispheric transfer time encompass a wide range of issues. The stimuli for the collision experiment consisted of three panels that depicted the motion of a ball (A) towards another ball (B), and the subsequent motion of B. The movements of the two balls individual differences in callosal organiza were either contiguous in space and time, or included a small spatial or temporal gap. Note that the tion might determine rates and routes of labels A and B are for illustrative purposes only and did not appear on the actual stimuli. In both of the interhemispheric integration, and influence split-brain patients, the right hemisphere performed better than the left in judging the causal nature of functional lateralization62,63. Stimuli for the causal inference experiment consisted of the this new evidence from neuroimaging is, sequential presentation of four stimulus interactions (1–4) and a response probe, which represented therefore, causing us to rethink earlier con one trial. Arrows indicate the movement of one or both of the coloured ‘switches’ on each presentation. In presentation 3, the clusions about interhemispheric interaction lightbox was not illuminated. After observing four interactions between the switches and the lightbox, and recruitment that were drawn from split participants were required to judge whether the response probe represented the switch that had brain testing alone. In both patients, the left hemisphere performed better than the right from the two methodologies is likely to con in drawing simple causal inferences. It which provides strong evidence for the ing in one hemisphere that results from the has been argued that understanding causal functional specificity of callosal sub-regions ageing process. A task that one hemisphere ity depends on both perceptual and infer in the intact human brain. Indeed, a ‘colliding’ evoke an illusion of causality that is region thought to connect the motor cor similar model seems to apply to individual constructed by the visual system in a manner tices — were found when the task required variations in the performance of young similar to the construction of other high rapid visuomotor integration. For tasks that required rapid Explanations for using two hemispheres from observers’ reports, which are open to interhemispheric integration (for exam instead of one for harder tasks introduce the post-perceptual interpretation. Split-brain ple, transfer of visual information to the issues of how the corpus callosum allocates patients provide a means of teasing apart the hemisphere directing a motor response), processing resources between hemispheres. The central question was 0 102030405060708090100 Percent self in image whether the more inferential task (the second experiment) would be lateralized to the same Figure 2 | Face recognition of self versus a familiar other in a split-brain patient. The right cerebral hemisphere required at least 80% of ‘self’ in the image for self to infer causality depended on different recognition to occur. In both patients, the left hemisphere was able to draw simple causal inferences, but was unable to Self-recognition cortical areas in the right hemisphere impairs use this capacity to determine the causal Severing the corpus callosum in humans the ability to recognize others71–75. Conversely, the has raised a fundamental question about the But is the right hemisphere similarly right hemisphere was sensitive to the causal nature of the self: does each disconnected specialized for self-recognition Although nature of collision events but was unable to half brain have its own sense of self This finding with split-brain patients quickly established idea76–78, the available evidence is inconclu implies that understanding causality is not that each half brain is specialized for certain sive. Neuroimaging studies have revealed that a unitary process and that causal perception functions and is capable of processing stimuli highly self-relevant material (for example, and causal inference can proceed independ without the obvious help or awareness of the autobiographical memories) activates a range ently. But could it be that each of cortical networks in the left hemisphere that depend on the ability to perform inference hemisphere has its own point of view, its own could, potentially, support self-recognition or interpretation at the simple level required self-referential system that is truly separate and a host of related cognitive functions79–82. There the right hemisphere, self-recognition might their investigations by identifying regions in were moments when one hemisphere seemed be supported by additional left-lateralized the right hemisphere involved in perceiving to be belligerent while the other was calm. There were significantly higher There were times when the left hand (control sibility, David Turk and colleagues assessed levels of relative activation in the right mid led by the right hemisphere) behaved playfully face recognition of self versus a familiar other dle frontal gyrus and the right inferior pari with an object that was held out of view while in a split-brain patient83. However, of the dozens of instances photographs that ranged from 0% to 100% temporal contingencies, and found that recorded over the years, none allowed for a self images. Although it has been dif familiar’ other), was used to represent 0% regions were uniquely activated by one or ficult to study the ‘self’ per se, there have been self and a photograph of J. Nine additional images manipulations and right temporal cortex for cognitive processing relating to the self. Research has revealed much about the software, with each image representing a these data, combined with the results of processes and brain structures that sup 10% incremental shift from M. In one condition (self-recogni eral observations about the nature of causal example, friends, family members and tion), J. Both functional imaging and presented image was himself; in the other of physical causality is the result of cortical patient studies show that face recognition condition (familiar other recognition), he processes mediated by the right hemisphere.
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As a result generic 150mg rulide fast delivery, participants recognize the word “nurse” more quickly after having first been presented with “doctor” (Meyer purchase rulide 150mg on-line, & Schvaneveldt rulide 150 mg with mastercard, 1971) rulide 150 mg mastercard. In a similar fashion, stereotypes can automatically prime associated judgments and behaviors. Stereotypes are our general beliefs about a group of people and, once activated, stereotypes may guide our own judgments outside of conscious awareness. In a now classic study, Patricia Devine (1989) primed study participants with words typically associated with the group Blacks. Devine found that study participants who were primed with the Black stereotype judged a target’s ambiguous behaviors as being more hostile (a trait stereotypically associated with Blacks) than nonprimed participants. Research in this area suggests that the social context —which constantly bombards us with concepts—may be priming us to form particular judgments and influencing our thoughts and behaviors. In summary, there are many cognitive processes and behaviors that occur outside our awareness or despite our intentions. Because automatic thoughts and behaviors do not require the same level of cognitive processing as conscious, deliberate thinking and acting, automaticity provides an efficient way for individuals to process and respond to the social world. However, this efficiency comes at a cost, as unconsciously held stereotypes and attitudes can sometimes influence us to behave in unintended ways. We will discuss the consequences of both consciously and unconsciously held attitudes in the next section. Attitudes and Attitude Measurement Social Cognition and Attitudes 710 When we encounter a new object or person, we often form an attitude toward it. An attitude is a “psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor” (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993, p. In essence, our attitudes are a type of bias that predisposes us to responses that are positive or negative. For example, a negative attitude toward mushrooms would predispose you to avoid them and think negatively of them in other ways. This bias can be long term or short term and can be overridden by another experience with the object. Thus, if you encounter a delicious mushroom dish in the future, your negative attitude could change. Traditionally, attitudes have been measured through explicit attitude measures in which participants are directly asked to provide their attitude toward various objects, people, or issues. For example, in a semantic-differential, respondents are asked to provide evaluations of an attitude object using a series of valenced response scales anchored by terms such as “pleasant” or “unpleasant” (Osgood, Suci, & Tannenbaum, 1957). In a Likert scale, respondents are asked to indicate their agreement with various evaluative statements, such as “I believe that psychology is the most interesting major” (Likert, 1932). These explicit measures of attitudes can be used to predict people’s actual behavior, but there are limitations to these measures. For one, sometimes individuals are unaware of their true attitude, because they either are undecided or the explicit attitudes expressed by voters are used to have not given it much thought. Furthermore, predict the outcomes of elections, however some people even when individuals are aware of their attitude, who respond to opinion questions that involve they might not want to admit their attitude, such controversial issues may hide their true attitudes. Thus, explicit attitude measures may be unreliable when asking about controversial attitudes or attitudes that are not widely accepted by society. In order to avoid some of the limitations of explicit measures of attitudes, many researchers use more subtle or covert ways of measuring attitudes that do not suffer from these self presentation concerns (Fazio & Olson, 2003). An implicit attitude is an attitude that a person Social Cognition and Attitudes 711 does not verbally or overtly express. Thus, implicit measures of attitudes are measures in which researchers infer the participant’s attitude rather than having the participant explicitly report it. Many implicit measures accomplish this by recording the time it takes a participant to label or categorize an attitude object. The participant’s response time in pairing the concept with the attribute indicates how strongly they associate the two. Another common implicit measure is the evaluative priming task (Fazio, Jackson, Dunton, & Williams, 1995), which measures how quickly the participant can label the valence of the attitude object when it appears immediately after a positive or negative image. The more quickly a participant can label the attitude object after being primed with a positive versus negative image indicates how positively they evaluate the object. Individuals’ implicit attitudes are sometimes inconsistent with their explicitly held attitudes. Hence, implicit measures may reveal biases that participants do not report on explicit measures. As a result, implicit attitude measures are especially useful for examining the pervasiveness and strength of controversial attitudes and stereotypic associations, such as racial biases or associations between race and violence. Thus, even though individuals are often unaware of their implicit attitudes, these attitudes can have serious implications for their behavior, especially when these individuals do not have the cognitive resources available to override the attitude’s influence. Conclusion Decades of research on social cognition and attitudes has examined many of the “tricks” and “tools” that we use to efficiently process the limitless amounts of social information that we encounter in our lives. These tools are quite useful for organizing the information that we encounter and arriving at quick decisions. When you see an individual engage in a behavior, such as seeing a man push an elderly lady to the ground, you form judgments about his personality, predictions about the likelihood of him engaging in similar behaviors in the future, as well as predictions about the elderly woman’s feelings and how you would feel if you were Social Cognition and Attitudes 712 in her position. As the research presented in this module demonstrates, we are adept and efficient at making these judgments and predictions, but these judgments are not made in a vacuum.
There is as yet no direct evidence that folic acid will protect against the neural pregnancy63 buy discount rulide 150 mg on-line. There is some evidence that the in epilepsy cheap rulide 150 mg mastercard, this is not always available and waiting times are long cheap 150 mg rulide mastercard. Nevertheless purchase rulide 150 mg online, a re-confguration neural tube defects, which occur in association with sodium valproate, are somewhat different from those of clinics and additional resources to allow for this service should be actively considered. Other abnormalities are less common and the defect may be the result of altered canalisation rather than folding of the developing During counselling a re-evaluation of the diagnosis and the need for continued antiepileptic medication neural crest. It remains uncertain as to whether folic acid will protect against this form of neural tube should take place. Details likely to have a child with a major congenital malformation than those who did not (3. However, peri-conceptual folic acid was associated with a reduction in the also be mentioned. As well as major malformations the risk of cognitive and developmental delay should incidence of valproate-associated neural tube defects (0. Small studies of infants with foetal anticonvulsant syndromes quoted this risk as between 39% and 55%, but more recent studies have estimated the recurrence risk of major malformations as between 15. In this study of 225 children, peri-conceptual folic acid was associated with higher (21. Data on whether women with epilepsy are at increased risk of obstetric complications are unclear. Measuring compliance is problematic and monitoring labour induction and artifcial labour have also been reported82 but whether this is due to a greater frequency of serum levels or self-reporting may not be reliable. However, no increase in risk was seen when this analysis was limited to women selection bias, but also by the methodology of daily reminders to fll in the diary98. Many factors may contribute to this fall including increased metabolism/ an increase in very early spontaneous abortion, this would not have been identifed. The most important risk factors for intrauterine death and phenytoin, that are moderately or highly protein bound. Apparent clearance increases steadily throughout pregnancy, peaking at about It is felt that this is due to reduced clotting factors, consequent to alterations in vitamin K metabolism, the 32nd week of gestation, when a 330% increase from baseline has been observed. More maternal supplementation with vitamin K1, with all infants also being given 1 mg vitamin K1 intramuscularly frequent measurements will be necessary if seizure control deteriorates, side effects ensue, or compliance at birth93, 94. However, the results from a recent case-control study did not show that there was an increased risk is an issue. However, the American Academy of Neurology updated its practice parameter in 2009, stating that foetus to additional risk has not however been established. At birth it is recommended, as is the case for all new-borns, that during the frst month after delivery to predict for toxicity. Studies documenting the natural history of epilepsy during pregnancy have given a wide range of results. The effects of epilepsy and in particular seizures on the developing embryo/fetus It is however usually held that women with well-controlled epilepsy are unlikely to experience a signifcant change in their seizure frequency. Using frst trimester as reference, that tonic-clonic seizures may cause foetal bradycardia109 or miscarriage but defnitive data are lacking. Likewise, prospective studies have not shown an association between tonic-clonic seizures less prescribed due to long term tolerability issues, especially with other effcacious alternatives available. Nevertheless, the risk of seizure recurrence, injury, status epilepticus, or even these changes have largely come about due to the knowledge that has been disseminated from several death needs to be considered. That the effects of status epilepticus in pregnancy were previously felt large observational studies. The dissemination of this knowledge among clinicians, the embedding of this to be particularly dramatic is well illustrated by Teramo and Hiilesmaa who compiled 29 cased from the into various national guidelines, brought about an expectation of a certain standard of care to be delivered literature, of which nine of the mothers and 14 of the foetuses died113. They are epilepticus (12 convulsive) there was one stillbirth, but no cases of miscarriage or maternal mortality96. That women with epilepsy who have seizures during pregnancy may be more likely to have preterm, An early case-control study found the rate of major congenital malformations for 210 infants exposed a small or low birth weight baby compared with women without epilepsy has also been shown in to carbamazepine was approximately twice that in the control group (relative risk 2. Carbamazepine has been reported to studies this effect was most pronounced in the children of women taking topiramate, with topiramate be associated with major malformations, including neural tube defects, at a rate of anything between 0. A smaller study from the Oppland and 1% of exposed pregnancies130, with heart defects, inguinal hernia, hypospadias and hip dislocations Perinatal Database117 also found increased risk of infants born to mothers with epilepsy being small for reported also. There have also been reports of reduced head circumference, weight and length at birth. Only 3 pregnancies exposed to topiramate were included but these had the lowest values for mean head circumference and birth weight in the epilepsy group. Unfortunately, information on seizure control Valproate has been shown to increase the risk of major congenital malformations in both preclinical during pregnancy was not included in these studies and remains unclear whether this effect was due studies and in human pregnancies. This effect has also been noted in a recent systematic review and for a major congenital malformation has been shown by all the major registry studies. There is also meta-analysis which identifed increased risk of preterm birth (37 weeks gestation) O. Data from all three of the main epilepsy and pregnancy registries has shown a dose-related increase in rates of major congenital malformations with higher valproate doses77, 129, 132. There is evidence of a pharmacogenetic susceptibility to the teratogenic effects of valproate It has also been consistently reported that women who take polytherapy are more at risk than those who both, from human reports139,140 and preclinical studies141.