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By: William A. Weiss, MD, PhD

  • Professor, Neurology UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA


Jung who developed the concept of synchronicity as an acausal explanatory principle purchase eldepryl 5mg without prescription medications that cause tinnitus. In 1909 buy 5mg eldepryl with amex treatment zinc toxicity, Jung visited his mentor Sigmund Freud in Vienna 5 mg eldepryl overnight delivery symptoms just before giving birth, and at one point asked him his opinion of psychic phenomena generic 5 mg eldepryl otc medicinenetcom. Although Freud later changed his mind on the subject, at that time he dismissed the likelihood that such events could occur. Jung narrates an uncanny incident that occurred in the course of this conversation. It was as if my diaphragm was made of iron and becoming red-hot a glowing vault. And at that moment there was such a loud report in the bookcase, which stood right next to us, that we both started up in alarm, fearing the thing was going to topple over us. I said to Freud: "There, that is an example of a so-called catalytic exteriorisation phenomenon. And to prove my point I now predict that in a moment there will be another loud report! In any case, this incident aroused his mistrust of me, and I had the feeling that I had done something against him. The theme of mistrust characterizes the entire history of macro-psychokinetic claims. It is probably fair to state that no one, since Jesus Christ, has ever made such claims and been trusted (and there are many who distrust the supposed miracles of Christ). Furthermore, although mistrust may well blind us against considering vital possibilities, it is clearly warrantged by the simple fact that numerous cases of fraud have been exposed in this area. Perhaps, at a deeper level, both the fraud and the mistrust which it justifiably produces are part of an underlying protective mechanism developed within the collective unconscious (to use a Jungian term) of humanity. For, given our present level of ethical development, what awesome horrors might be wreak upon ourselves if we were able to harness psychokinesis in a disciplined manner? As a result of personal experiences that I shall recount, I accept the possibility of large-scale psychokinesis. I am also convinced that our planetary culture must demonstrate a willingness to solve the obvious problems of hunger, pollution, political inequality and war before we will be capable of responsibly wielding the full power of our own minds. The following examples provide some hints as to what that full power might possibly entail. Home Perhaps the greatest ostensible physical medium who has ever lived was Daniel Dunglas Home. However, at an early age he went to New England to live with his aunt who adopted him. At the age of seventeen he had a vision of the death of his mother, which was soon verified. After that time the household was frequently disturbed with loud raps and moving furniture. Declaring that he had introduced the devil to the household, his aunt threw him out. Among those who were convinced of his abilities in this early period were Judge John Edmunds of the New York State Supreme Court and Robert Hare, an ameritus professor of chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania. He exhibited religious reverence for the powers and knowledge that manifested through him along with a scientific curiosity to seek rational explanations. He conducted seances with the kings of Bavaria and 210 Wurtemburg as well as William I of Germany and assorted nobility throughout Europe. He conducted a seance for the poets Elizabeth Barrett Browning and her husband Robert. Although his wife protested, Robert Browning insisted that Home was a fraud and wrote a long poem called "Mr. In fact, throughout his long career, Home was never caught in any verifiable deceptions although there were some apparant close calls. In 1868, Home conducted experiments with Cromwell Varley, chief engineer of the Atlantic Cable Company and afterwards before members of the London Dialectical Society, who held fifty seances with him at which thirty persons were present. Their report, published in 1871, attested to the observation of sounds and vibrations, the movements of heavy objects not touched by any person, and well-executed pieces of music coming from instruments not manipulated by any visible agency, as well as the appearance of hands and faces that did not belong to any tangible human being, but that nevertheless seemed alive and mobile. Crookes conducted two very ingenious experiments with Home in which he tested alterations in the weight of objects and the playing of tunes upon musical instruments under conditions rendering human contact with the keys impossible. For the first experiment, Crookes developed a simple apparatus measuring the changes in weight of a mahogany board. One end of the board rested on a firm table, whilst the other end was supported by a spring balance hanging from a substantial tripod stand. The balance was fitted with a self-registering index, in such a manner that it would record the maximum weight indicated by the pointer. The apparatus was adjusted so that the mahogany board was horizontal, its foot resting flat on the support. In this position its weight was three pounds, as marked by the pointed of the balance. On some occasions, Home never even touched the board: he merely placed his hands three inches over it. In other experiments, Crookes used a recording device to make a permanent record of the fluctuations in the weight.

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A primary anxiety disorder diagnosis is warranted if the panic or anxiety symptoms persist for a substantial period of time (about 1 month or longer) after the end of the substance in? toxication or acute withdrawal or there is a history of an anxiety disorder order eldepryl 5 mg visa medicine nausea. If panic or anxiety symptoms occur exclusively during the course of delirium buy cheap eldepryl 5 mg symptoms 6 days before period due, they are considered to order eldepryl 5 mg without a prescription bad medicine be an associated feature of the delirium and are not diagnosed sep? arately eldepryl 5mg lowest price medications xanax. If the panic or anxiety symptoms are attributed to the physiological consequences of another medical condition. If the disturbance is attributable to both another medical condition and substance use, both diagnoses. When there is insufficient evidence to determine whether the panic or anxiety symp? toms are attributable to a substance/medication or to another medical condition or are pri? mary. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the dis? turbance is the direct pathophysiological consequence of another medical condition. Coding note: Include the name of the other medical condition within the name of the men? tal disorder. The other medical condition should be coded and listed separately immediately before the anxiety disorder due to the medical condition. The judgment that the symptoms are best explained by the associated physical condition must be based on evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings (Criterion B). Additionally, it must be judged that the symptoms are not better accounted for by another mental disorder, in particular, adjustment disorder, with anxiety, in which the stressor is the medical condition (Criterion C). In this case, an individual with adjustment disorder is espe? cially distressed about the meaning or the consequences of the associated medical condition. The diagnosis is not made if the anxiety symptoms occur only during the course of a delirium (Criterion D). The anxiety symp? toms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (Criterion E). In determining whether the anxiety symptoms are attributable to another medical con? dition, the clinician must first establish the presence of the medical condition. Further? more, it must be established that anxiety symptoms can be etiologically related to the medical condition through a physiological mechanism before making a judgment that this is the best explanation for the symptoms in a specific individual. A careful and compre? hensive assessment of multiple factors is necessary to make this judgment. Several aspects of the clinical presentation should be considered: 1) the presence of a clear temporal asso? ciation between the onset, exacerbation, or remission of the medical condition and the anx? iety symptoms; 2) the presence of features that are atypical of a primary anxiety disorder. In addition, the disturbance must not be better explained by a primary anxiety disorder, a substance/medication induced anxiety disorder, or another primary mental disorder. Associated Features Supporting Diagnosis A number of medical conditions are known to include anxiety as a symptomatic manifes? tation. Anxiety due to another medical condition is diagnosed when the medical condition is known to induce anxiety and when the medical condition preceded the onset of the anxiety. Prevalence the prevalence of anxiety disorder due to another medical condition is unclear. There ap? pears to be an elevated prevalence of anxiety disorders among individuals with a variety of medical conditions, including asthma, hypertension, ulcers, and arthritis. However, this increased prevalence may be due to reasons other than the anxiety disorder directly caus? ing the medical condition. Development and Course the development and course of anxiety disorder due to another medical condition gen? erally follows the course of the underlying illness. This diagnosis is not meant to include primary anxiety disorders that arise in the context of chronic medical illness. This is im? portant to consider with older adults, who may experience chronic medical illness and then develop independent anxiety disorders secondary to the chronic medical illness. Diagnostic Markers Laboratory assessments and/or medical examinations are necessary to confirm the diag? nosis of the associated medical condition. A separate diagnosis of anxiety disorder due to another medical condition is not given if the anxiety disturbance occurs exclusively during the course of a delirium. However, a diagnosis of anxiety disorder due to another medical condition may be given in addition to a diagnosis of major neurocognitive disorder (dementia) if the etiology of anxiety is judged to be a physiological consequence of the pathological process causing the neurocognitive disorder and if anxiety is a prominent part of the clinical presentation. If the presentation includes a mix of different types of symptoms, the specific mental disorder due to another medical condition depends on which symptoms predominate in the clinical picture. If there is evidence of recent or pro? longed substance use (including medications with psychoactive effects), withdrawal from a substance, or exposure to a toxin, a substance/medication-induced anxiety disorder should be considered. When a diagnosis of substance induced anxiety is being made in relation to recreational or nonprescribed drugs, it may be useful to obtain a urine or blood drug screen or other appropriate laboratory evaluation. If the disturbance is associated with both another medical condition and substance use, both diagnoses. Features such as onset af? ter age 45 years or the presence of atypical symptoms during a panic attack. Anxiety disorder due to an? other medical condition should be distinguished from other anxiety disorders (especially panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder). In other anxiety disorders, no specific and direct causative physiological mechanisms associated with another medical condition can be demonstrated. Late age at onset, atypical symptoms, and the absence of a personal or family history of anxiety disorders suggest the need for a thorough assessment to rule out the diagnosis of anxiety disorder due to another medical condition. Anxiety disorders can exacerbate or pose increased risk for medical conditions such as cardiovascular events and myocardial infarction and should not be diagnosed as anxiety disorder due to another medical condition in these cases. Anxiety disorder due to another medical condition should be distinguished from illness anxiety disorder. Illness anxiety disorder is characterized by worry about illness, concern about pain, and bodily preoccupations. In the case of illness anxiety disorder, individuals may or may not have diagnosed medical conditions.

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At the same time proven eldepryl 5mg symptoms nicotine withdrawal, forcing student-athletes with depression to generic 5mg eldepryl free shipping 3 medications that cannot be crushed perform while they are in a depressive state can be detrimental to buy eldepryl 5mg visa treatment laryngomalacia infant their ability to eldepryl 5mg generic keratin smoothing treatment perform and to manage their depression. Given this paradox, it is important to talk with the student-athlete and all individuals involved in their care in order to determine the best course of action. Research has suggested that a??Coaches and athletic trainers should recognize the combination of psychological intervention (counseling), with power and infuence they have over student-athletes. While many people do not seek treatment, it is careful with depressed student-athletes, as they may important to try to guide individuals suffering from depres interpret your words and actions more negatively sion toward effective resources that may be benefcial. Consider this hypothetical situ For some, sports can provide a sense of identity, a ation: A student-athlete is benched for the frst competition source of self-esteem and a sense of accomplish of the season. For others, it may increase the student-ath contribute signifcantly to the success of her team. This is a decision that should be however this student-athlete hasn?t been feeling right. In the past two weeks, the stu dent-athlete has missed class more than usual and has stopped hanging out with friends. Do you know to whom you would refer a this student-athlete is displaying a number of symptoms student-athlete in need of evaluation and possible of the depressive disorders, and the timing and duration treatment for depression? Is there anything you could be doing better to case, this student-athlete would likely beneft from some psychologically support student-athletes who are one reaching out to her in a non-evaluative manner and ex dealing with major injuries? At times, identi It is important to note here that there are other disorders fying a depressive disorder (especially major depressive or situations (for example, substance use/abuse) that lead disorder) can be diffcult given the nature of the life of to similar symptoms. Most (if not all) college campuses now have someone one in academics sees some of the symptoms mentioned ear who provides clinical psychological service to that campus; lier, they may not know if that student-athlete is showing the thus, consulting with that person can help properly identify same symptoms in his or her athletics and social pursuits. A number of national pro their symptoms (through substance use, for instance) or grams address the topic of suicide intervention. One of the may withdraw to the point that even their closest friends/ most important factors in intervening with someone who teammates do not know what is going on. Secondary to that is to not be afraid of to consider before needing hospitalization after a threat or the answer given. In most cases, a important to consult with a mental health provider or physi mental health practitioner will have an idea of what needs cian to get that person immediate help. Chris Bader has been the counseling and sport psychologist for the University of Colorado athletics department since August 2012. Bader provides clinical, assessment and individual and team consultation to the student-athletes and coaches and helps incoming student-athletes adjust to their new environment. From 2007 to 2012, Bader was on staf in the Psychological Resources for Student-Athletes ofce at the University of Oklahoma. Heininger at frst tried to combat Heininger grew up in Ann Arbor and always dreamed his depression with the same single-minded determination of playing for the Wolverines one day. Then the symptoms That athletics mindset got me so far, so of depression set in after the summer of his freshman year. I felt Heininger said a contributing factor to his depression was like I?d failed because I couldn?t beat it myself,? he said. Heininger said that contrary to frst, a step he found worthwhile, but that alone was not what he imagined, almost everybody was super recep enough to bring him out of his depression. Initially he applied his new understanding of the na I had an irrational fear that I?d be weak in their eyes, ture of depression and why people experience it to help that they?d see me as unstable, someone they couldn?t his father, who had been experiencing some issues at trust,? Heininger said. Some try who advance de-stigmatization and improved aware people don?t think of athletes as human; they just see ness of mental health issues. But he did eventually open up to his coach, experi I believe in it if you save one life, you?ve done encing a self-described breakdown in his offce. That is when he found out about the support services In my ideal world, there is zero stigma associated with available to him and began to have therapy sessions with mental illness. Once he started therapy, Heininger Everybody would go to therapy, and there would be began to better understand depression. Most people don?t real issues written by Jassim Kunji and published in the Fall ly understand depression. In total, 19,733 student of 18 (about 18 percent) had a mental disorder, and nearly athletes and 171,601 non-athletes were included in the analyses. Both associated and demographic variables were in have been diagnosed with a mental disorder, such as anx cluded in the models. About 30 per associated variables included perceptions of general health, cent of the 195,000 respondents to a recent American Col perceptions of stress and substance use. These included: One of the primary concerns regarding the prevalence of??Academics mental illness among student-athletes is that it may affect??Career-related issue not only their success in academics and athletics but also??Death of a family member or friend their general well-being. While depression and anxiety have??Family problem been found to be signifcant predictors of a lower grade-point??Intimate relationship average and poor athletics performance, they?re also highly??Finance correlated with other risky behaviors, including suicide. And, student-athlete status, our primary To help determine the prevalence and effects of anxiety demographic variable of interest, also was found signifcant and depression in the student-athlete population, we stud and was a negative predictor. Not surprisingly, the stron Those surveys cover issues including substance use, sexual gest was the perceived level of stress in the last 12 months. Symptoms such as fatigue, hypertension, have you participated in organized college athletics at any headaches, depression and anxiety can be attributed to stress. The data indicate that loneliness ships also are strongly related to depression and anxiety.

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A differential equation is an equation in which some function is related to order eldepryl 5 mg with amex treatment 4 ringworm its own deriva tive(s) buy eldepryl 5mg low cost medications beginning with z. For each of the following functions buy 5 mg eldepryl overnight delivery symptoms quad strain, calculate the appropriate deriva tive cheap eldepryl 5 mg with amex medications for rheumatoid arthritis, and show that the function satis? For what value(s) of these constants does this function satisfy the equation dy (a) dt =? Note: an equation which involves a function and its derivative is called a differential equation. Note: all your answers should be exponential functions, but they may have different dependent and independent variables. Find the appropriate differential equation that describes this growth, the appropriate initial condition, and the exponential function (with base e) that is the solution to that differential equation. In underdeveloped countries, people on average live to age 60 and women have a child roughly every 4 years between ages 13 and 45. Compare the per capita birth and mortality rates and the predicted pop ulation growth or decay in each of these scenarios, using arguments analogous to those of Section 11. Find the growth rate k in percent per year and the doubling time for the growing population. The population density, P(t) is found to satisfy the differential equation dP(t) = bP(t)? This means that, on average, each member of the population results in 5 newborn rodents every 100 days. Sup pose that over the period of 1000 days there are no deaths, and that the initial population of rodents is 250. A bacterial population grows at a rate propor tional to the population size at time t. By experiment it is determined that the population at t = 10 min is 15,000 and at t = 30 min it is 20,000. A colony of bacteria is treated with a mild antibiotic agent so that the bacteria start to die. It is observed that the density of bacteria as a function of time follows the approximate relationship b(t) = 85e? Determine the time it takes for half of the bacteria to disappear; this is called the half-life. Suppose the reaction mixture initially has concentration 1M (?1 molar?) and that after 1 hour there is half this amount. The concentration of the substance is observed to change at a rate proportional to the current concentration. This means that after 5730 years, a sample of Carbon 14, which is a ra dioactive isotope of carbon, has lost one half of its original radioactiv ity. For example, a sample 5730 years old has only one half the original activity level, i. If a 1 gm sample of material is found to have 45 decays per hour, approximately how old is it? Note: 14C is used in radiocarbon dating, a process by which the age of materials containing carbon can be estimated. Libby received the Nobel prize in chemistry in 1960 for developing this technique. If you begin with a sample of 800 units, how long does it take for the amount of radioactivity of the strontium sample to be reduced to (a) 400 units (b) 200 units (c) 1 unit 11. We encountered a differential equation that tracks changes in cell mass due to nutrient absorption and consumption. In applications studied, that function can be interpreted as predictions of the behaviour of the system or process over time. We then examine a simple class of differential equations that have many applications to processes of production and decay, and? Finally, we show how an approximation method provides for numerical solutions of such problems. Given a function, check whether that function does or does not satisfy a given differential equation. The expressions we get by evaluating each side of the differential water h(t) in the container satis? Create a table to organize the calculations for this example, To show that the differential equation (12. In others, some transformation that changes the problem to a more familiar one is helpful an example of this type is presented in Section 12. In many cases, particularly those of so-called non-linear differential equa tions, great expertise and familiarity with advanced mathematical methods are required to? Describe a variety of related examples, and use the same methods to solve and interpret these (examples include chemical production and decay, the velocity of a skydiver, the concentration of drug in the blood, and others). In this section we introduce an important class of differential equations that have many applications in physics, chemistry, biology, and other applica tions. Here we Then, since a,b are constants, we recognize that show two typical initial values of z, where z = y? We have arrived at the conclusion that the deviation from steady state decays exponentially with time, provided that b > 0. Hence, we already know that y should get closer to the constant value a/b as time goes by! We can do even better than this, by transforming the solution we found for z(t) into an expression for y(t). Rewrite these four initial conditions By solving the above problem, we get a detailed prediction of cell growth as the initial deviations away from steady state, that is, give the initial based on assumed rates of nutrient intake and consumption. Depending on whether the object is cooler or warmer than the environment, it heats up or cools down.

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