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The Michelle Reintals: Biennial mammography (breast Mammograms can be used to generic 100mg cefixime overnight delivery antimicrobial therapy publisher identify mass lesions best 200mg cefixime oral antibiotics for mild acne, distor where the mammography abnormality is cleared purchase cefixime 100 mg amex antibiotic resistance explained. Breast sound is used to effective 100 mg cefixime virus 24 characterise the abnormality by determin formed in combination with mammography and the Elizabeth Morris: Breast imaging is rapidly evolving. Our Screen Australia has been providing mammographic ing for example if it is solid, cystic, infltrating or vascular. We have many new tests that Australia has six states, and each state provides 60–70% of American women undergo screening mammog cannot only detect anatomic abnormalities but can also an individual screening programme, which is held raphy. Traditional mammogra accountable to a high standard of practice by the societies. Ultrasound screening the challenges that a population-based screening pro It is recommended that the patient continues screening is performed for women with dense breasts. What kind of pro Mobile bus units travel around Australia, which assists tunistic screening programmes, which can be found in grammes are in place in your country and where do you in breaking down the barriers of accessibility. Gabor Forrai: Hungary was among the frst countries to national screening programme. Participation rates are She developed the Breast Magnetic Resonance Imag introduce nationwide organised screening, in 2001. One special advantage is the lower-than McGrath Foundation, contribute signifcantly to the sible malignancy, which steps are taken nextfi Morris was educated at University of California San usual starting age (45), and a disadvantage is the quite awareness of breast cancer through sponsored events Are other modalities used for confrmationfi The benefts of a screening programme have been demon Miguel Angel Pinochet Tejos: Once a possible malignant can College of Radiology. Morris currently serves as the goal of the programme is also to raise awareness, strated with a reduction in mortality rates, but potential lesion has been detected with mammography, a crucial step President of the Society of Breast Imaging. These include reduced accuracy of cancer detec locate any other associated fndings. Should we be ofering magnetic resonance back for additional imaging, which would be specialised Dr. Morris is considered one of the leaders in the feld of breast imaging both nationally and inter target group between the ages of 50–74 to attend for a bien imaging to women with high mammographic breast densityfi Of these, nationally and has been an invited speaker at more nial screening mammogram. Statistics have shown a beneft this is a complex issue, with concerns relating to approximately 80 will be called negative at that point. Morris hopes that one day from breast cancer, compared with 44 per 100,000 in 2012. Five of these women will turn out to have breast breast cancer can be detected early enough to be treated without radical therapies. Therefore, it is up to the woman to remem in line with earlier randomised controlled trials undertaken ber to have her mammogram as she does not receive a Gabor Forrai: When detecting a possible malignancy, in Europe. The treat Elizabeth Morris: Using imaging can be very helpful when sound-guided biopsy, which can be performed for any ment will depend upon this pre-operative staging. Biopsy with ultrasound guid the staging investigations depend upon the relied upon to detect the entire extent of disease within ance is a short procedure which is performed with the size of the primary breast cancer. If the lesion is only visible with the cancer has moved to other parts of the body. There are circumstances throughout the breast), and if there is involve where non-surgical treatment is administered. Eugene Jooste: Additional views are obtained in order to ment in the contralateral (opposite) breast. Neo-adjuvant treatment is used in advanced cancers confrm or exclude the presence of suspicious fndings. This approach may also be used to reduce melweis Medical University, Budapest, Hungary. Similarly, in frail or elderly patients who are not amenable professor and head of department at the Haynal Imre sible additional abnormalities (including in the other breast). He is currently for standard practice include the use of multiple modal are removed at the time of mastectomy or par In all these instances, the tumour burden and extent of head of the department of radiology at Duna Medical Center in Budapest, Hungary and head of the breast ities, and the individual application depends upon many tial mastectomy. If these nodes prove to be malig nodal disease is monitored at regular intervals, to ensure screening centres in Vac and Eger County Hospitals. If the tumour and Erlangen, Germany (1990), as well as Rehovot, Israel investigated with spot compression views if the abnormality burden is increasing, then hormonal or chemotherapy agents (1998), Nottingham, United Kingdom (1999) and Dus seldorf University, Germany (1993–1994). The imaging options available to closely a post as staf radiologist at the Hopital Tenon, Paris, if calcifcation. Typically ultrasound will then be performed use of imaging, but how can imaging be employed monitor the tumour and nodal response are mammography, France (1994–1995). If there is distant spread of disease An experienced lecturer (with 227 presentations in French, English and Hungarian), Prof. The site marker is a few millimetres in size, typically may develop the disease, such as women with high risk going an imaging examfi His contributions to French-Hungarian scientifc coop eration have been recognised by the French Republic, within the breast long-term if the calcifcations are benign. In elderly patients with cancer, who cannot undergo an oper which awarded him Knight of National Order of Merit Once the diagnosis of breast cancer is made, stag ation and who do not respond to hormonal therapy, ultra Elizabeth Morris: Breast cancer screening with mam (2012). What kind of safeguards help to avoid mis of any potential missed or interval cancers, as they ant to schedule mammography after the menstrual takes in image interpretation and ensure consistencyfi
Draining pus is the commonest surgical operation in low and middle income countries all over the world 100 mg cefixime mastercard virus 4 year old. Quite a small district hospital can expect to cefixime 100mg generic infection in the blood drain 200 large abscesses each year discount 200mg cefixime visa bacteria mod 147, some containing up to buy generic cefixime 100mg line antibiotics zyvox 3 litres pus. Although pus can collect almost anywhere, particularly important sites are the breast (6. Over 50% of patients with surgical sepsis are malnourished (with protein and calorie deficiency): the malnutrition is either primary or arises because of the sepsis. This malnutrition increases the risk of further infection, pressure sores, pneumonia and multi-organ failure. Abscesses are more common in children and young adults, and a patient may have a dozen or more at the same time. Staphylococci are almost always responsible, except in the perineal and perianal region, which is commonly infected by coliforms and anaerobes. Initially, when there is cellulitis (bacteria multiplying in the tissues), antibiotics will be effective. Antibiotics and drainage thus both have their proper time and place, and you must not confuse them. The typical symptom of an abscess is severe throbbing the tighter the space for an abscess, the more urgent the pain. If a patient has pus in the bones, joints, (tumor), and the skin over it stretched, shiny, and red tendon sheaths, or the pulp space of the fingers, draining it (rugor), although this may not be evident on pigmented early is particularly urgent. Incise abscesses in any of these places without waiting for Never try to treat an abscess by one aspiration alone. Assess the general condition carefully, adequate drainage by incision is necessary. Suspect a wound abscess if a You may be able to isolate the causative organism suture line becomes indurated and tender; it may not be (this is important in osteomyelitis). If you suspect that there is a foreign body in an abscess, this is an added reason for exploring it. If you are not sure if pus is present or not, aspirate the lesion with a wide bore needle to see if you can withdraw pus. If you fail to aspirate pus with a needle, this does not mean that there is no pus present! Signs that an infection is spreading are not a contraindication to drainage; if you suspect pus is present, drain it. Alternatively you can infiltrate all around circumference of the abscess, if this is not too big. A common mistake is not to make the incision large suspect that resistance to infection is low and treat with enough, so extend the incision the whole diameter of the particular care. For anaemia, transfuse pre tissues down to the deep fascia; then push blunt scissors or operatively and, if necessary, again during the operation. If necessary, particularly if a child is severely anaemic or malnourished, enlarge the wound by blunt dissection inside the tissues. Make sure that any more of these, an underlying tumour, or occasionally pus which collects can drain from the bottom of the cavity. The best instrument to find and pull out a suture this is especially necessary with perianal (6. If pus has to drain downwards, as in the breast, try to incise the lowest part of the abscess. This is better than making a counter incision at its lowest point, and it also avoids making 2 incisions. You rarely need to transfuse blood unless there are multiple abscesses or severe pre-existing anaemia. If the abscess is in some A, incise the abscess at its lowest point, if this is practicable. Make sure the fluid intake is adequate, and do not forget to supply an analgesic: abscesses are painful! If it is pointing, be to diagnose an extradural abscess in the first place and a small incision will let it discharge and will reduce the to know where it is: the abscess is underneath the swelling. Never squeeze a pustule; especially on the changes if an extradural abscess is chronic, or if there is face, never let the patient squeeze it. Make this on the edge of the area of swelling on the skull (where present), and nibble away the skull around it until the abscess is well drained. A staphylococcal infection starts in one of the hair follicles, usually at the back of the neck or on the back of a finger (8. Acute suppurative infection is common near the eye, Antibiotics do not cure a carbuncle, although they may especially in children. Wash it with water, apply dry region is that infection may occasionally kill the patient by gauze, and change this frequently. If the slough is slow to separate, excise it, and apply a dressing of Vaseline (petroleum jelly) gauze. If the bare area is large, apply a split skin graft, as soon as it is clean and granulating. B, pus spreading under pupillary changes) and localizing motor signs, usually on the periosteum from the frontal sinus. Because of is more common than orbital cellulitis and occurs in the danger of cavernous sinus thrombosis you must drain younger children. A negative exploration will not cause harm, (1) local trauma, (2) skin sepsis, (3) a recent upper and you are very unlikely to damage the globe. Recently he had had fever, headache, rigors, and gradual swelling of the mandible. He was ill, dehydrated, shocked, jaundiced, Orbital cellulitis occurs behind the orbital septum, and is and confused.
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Surgical intervention is necessary if the patient has acute abdominal findings associated with peritonitis and signs of sepsis in the presence of a ruptured tubo-ovarian abscess discount 200 mg cefixime with mastercard antibiotics for sinus infection biaxin. For the patient who desires future fertility 100mg cefixime visa what antibiotics for sinus infection, consideration should be given to cefixime 100 mg on line infection nclex questions unilateral salpingo oophorectomy or partial bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy without hysterectomy 100 mg cefixime mastercard antibiotic resistance diagnostics. For the patient in whom bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is required, the uterus can be left in place for possible ovum donation and in vitro fertilization. Endometriosis Medical and conservative surgical procedures are successful for treatment of endometriosis (15). Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, with or without hysterectomy, should be performed only in patients who do not respond to conservative surgical (resection or ablation of endometriotic implants) or medical therapy (see Chapter 17). Most patients with endometriosis who require hysterectomy have unrelenting pelvic pain or dysmenorrhea. Other less common situations include patients who do not desire future fertility and who have endometriosis involving other pelvic organs, such as the ureter or colon. Hysterectomy with or without salpingo-oophorectomy provides significant pain relief to the majority of patients. At the time of hysterectomy for endometriosis, consideration should be given to conserving normal ovaries (16). Pelvic Mass or Benign Ovarian Tumor If a pelvic mass is palpated on pelvic examination, a transvaginal ultrasound should be performed (see Chapter 14). If the mass is suspicious, appropriate consultation with a gynecologic oncologist is recommended. Benign ovarian tumors that are persistent or symptomatic require surgical treatment. If fertility is not an issue or if the patient is perimenopausal or postmenopausal, a decision must be made regarding whether the uterus should be removed. In one study, 100 patients who underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy plus hysterectomy for benign adnexal disease were compared with a group of risk-matched women who underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy without hysterectomy for the same indication (17). There was a significant increase in operative morbidity, estimated blood loss, and the length of hospital stay for patients in whom hysterectomy was performed. Preoperative Considerations the preoperative discussion should include an informed consent that documents the options, risks, benefits, outcome, and personnel involved with the procedure. The medical record should reflect the completion of childbearing and that adequate trial of medical or nonsurgical management was offered, attempted, or refused. Health Assessment An assessment of a patient’s health status is important in order to obtain an optimal outcome after hysterectomy for benign disease. There are no routinely recommended tests, although individual hospitals may have their own requirements. The patient should be evaluated for risk factors associated with venous thromboembolic events (18). Age, medical history, such as inherited or acquired thrombophilias, obesity, smoking, and hormonal medication, including contraceptives or hormone therapy, may increase the risk. Hysterectomy versus Supracervical Hysterectomy There is a trend toward retention of the cervix at hysterectomy because of the perception that several outcome parameters, including sexual function and pelvic support, are better after a supracervical hysterectomy. Three prospective randomized clinical trials as summarized in a Cochrane review challenge this perception (19). There was no evidence to support the concept that leaving the cervix improves sexual function or lower rates of incontinence or constipation. This decreased surgical time may be more significant for laparoscopic cases, as the most difficult part of the surgery is the detachment of the cervix from the lateral ligaments and from the vagina. This advantage should be balanced with the potential risk of ongoing cyclic bleeding from the cervix that is reportedly between 5% to 20% from the randomized clinical trials and 19% from a prospective observational laparoscopic trial (20). With conservation of the cervix, the patient should be told there is a potential 1% to 2% risk for reoperation to remove the cervix and that trachelectomy is associated with a risk of intraoperative complications. Patients with suspected gynecologic cancers or cervical dysplasia are not candidates for supracervical hysterectomy. Prophylactic Salpingo-oophorectomy the decision to remove the ovaries and tubes should be based on assessment of risk and not the route of hysterectomy (21). Premenopausal women who are at average risk of ovarian cancer (approximate lifetime risk of 1. Parous women who have used oral contraceptives may have a substantially lower risk (22). Salpingo-oophorectomy is performed prophylactically to prevent ovarian cancer and to eliminate the potential for further surgery for either benign or malignant disease. Arguments against prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy center on the need for earlier and more prolonged hormone therapy and the potential increase risk of cardiovascular disease and bone loss (24,25). There is no overall survival benefit of prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy in women at average risk for ovarian cancer. In premenopausal women before age 50 years at average risk for ovarian cancer who underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, there was a significant increase in mortality from cardiovascular disease compared to women who had ovarian preservation (25). A Markov decision analysis model was used to estimate the best strategy for maximizing a woman’s survival when salpingo-oophorectomy is considered in women at average risk for ovarian cancer who are undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease, and in the women who had salpingo-oophorectomy before age 55 years, there was an 8. Both the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Society of Gynecologic Oncologists recommend carefully assessing risk, and consideration should be given to conservation of the ovaries in premenopausal women who are at average risk of ovarian cancer (21,22). Although estrogen therapy is well tolerated and provides good short-term symptomatic relief, recent publications demonstrate that the increased risk of breast cancer in women taking estrogen after hysterectomy makes women reluctant to use it, and long-term compliance with posthysterectomy estrogen therapy is low (27). In women at risk for ovarian or breast cancer, a formal evaluation with genetic counseling should be offered (see Chapter 37).
It often stops spontaneously generic 200mg cefixime with mastercard epstein-barr virus, and 70% of than when the membranes are ruptured some time before mothers do not deliver within 48hrs generic 100mg cefixime mastercard bacteria 4 billion years ago, and start labour delivery cheap 100 mg cefixime with amex antibiotic lecture. You can try to generic cefixime 200mg line antibiotics for pink eye postpone delivery for at least 48hrs in order to ripen the foetal lungs with 12mg N. If you use a Kocher’s and you push the membranes indomethacin 50-100mg (preferably as a suppository) against the presenting part and then rupture the membranes followed by 25mg 4hrly for a maximum of 3days might you will often catch some hair but also scratch the foetus, help. Using misoprostol to prime the cervix/induce membranes have not ruptured, assess as follows: labour has as disadvantage that the medication cannot be (1) In the active phase of labour (the cervix is >3cm), controlled as easily as an oxytocin infusion. On the other try to delay delivery with nifedipine (or indomethacin if at hand with misoprostol, the membranes do not need to be <30wks) in order to gain time to ripen the foetal lungs with ruptured till (very) late in labour making mother-to-child steroids. If the cervix is sill closed, as it often is, (7) an extra-uterine gestation (rare, 20. Teach that premature rupture of in the next pregnancy use them in the 2nd trimester for the membranes means there needs to be a very good 1wk. Handle the foetus occasionally you might detect a cord prolapse: you can gently and keep him warm, using the kangaroo method usually rule it out confidently; you may also deduce a. Loss of fluid from the vagina, before the onset of regular painful contractions, is diagnostic. If you are not sure of the dates, or there appears to be a discrepancy, assess the foetal age by ultrasound (38. When labour is normal, regular contractions start and the Start by separating the labia and asking for a cough: cervix begins to dilate before the membranes rupture and is liquor discharging from the vaginafi Make sure that a senior the advantages of expectant treatment (not inducing person does this, so that it need not be repeated. These are: a vaginal examination is much more reliable than visual (a) failure, which means that you will need to perform a inspection, Caesarean Section, and (2) feel the degree of cervical effacement, (b) the side-effects of oxytocin (21. Do not do a vaginal examination with until contractions are well established, ungloved fingers: the risk of infection is too high. Liquor, but not urine, or a discharge, will dry starts successfully within this time. Peculiarly, the foetus which is most often dead, may appear to be crying If gestation is <28wks, with a live foetus, and there are in the uterus because gas makes it possible to produce no signs of infection, the chances of the pregnancy sound. If the infection has spread to the wall of the uterus, perform a hysterectomy to save the mother’s life. If gestation is 28-35wks, treat prophylactically with A foetus >2wks postmature is at increased risk of stillbirth, antibiotics, preferably erythromycin. If you use antibiotics before there are signs of 42wks significantly reduces the perinatal mortality. Once an obvious infection is established, induction is the risks of accidental premature induction are needed as well as antibiotics as before to prevent spread of considerable: this infection. Thus, if periods occur every 2months, If it continues to drain at 48hrs, induce labour, if the risk conception will occur 6wks after the last period, instead of of infection is high. There is a high risk of septicaemia with (9) A dead foetus: do not rupture the membranes. Empty the uterus as soon as assumed to be present, but is in fact the whole uterus! If you have the misfortune to find a grossly this is simplest under ultrasound guidance. If you are not abnormal conjoined twin, Caesarean Section is the method sure of the diagnosis, or do not feel you can risk of choice. Anencephaly is complicated in 90% of cases by the alternatives are: polyhydramnios; so when you diagnose this, (1);The best, to drain the head before making the uterine do an ultrasound on the mother to see if the foetus has a incision; brain (38. If not, it is usually stillborn, and even when it nd (2);2 best, to make a transverse, curved incision 4cm is born alive, it does not survive >6hrs. When you have higher than normal with the ends near the attachments of explained the diagnosis to the mother, she may insist that the round ligaments; the pregnancy is terminated. If you suspect it, confirm the because you made the incision in the direction of the diagnosis by ultrasound (38. If the diagnosis is In order to avoid a Caesarean Section when there is no doubtful, wait. Sometimes you have to not, and the membranes are intact, there is no hurry manipulate the foetus through the abdominal wall in anyway. To perforate the foetal head vaginally, wait until the cervix A breech presentation is no problem. Use low doses of is >3cm dilated, then drain the cerebrospinal fluid with a misoprostol erring on the side of too little because there is large needle or artery forceps between the widely no medical hurry. If anencephaly is not accompanied by polyhydramnios In this situation, however, you are committed because the (10%), pregnancy may rarely be prolonged up to 1yr or membranes are ruptured and if labour has not started or more, and make delivery difficult. Misoprostol is the drug stops, you might have to perform a Caesarean Section on a of choice also, the dose depending on the parity and dead or non-viable foetus. If you make the diagnosis during pregnancy, If you make the diagnosis during a breech try to measure the size of the foetal head and determine if presentation, (22. Often you are parents, explaining the need for a ventriculo-peritoneal alerted to the hydrocephalus by seeing clubfeet (32. Do not endanger the life of the as the hydrocephalic head fails to enter the pelvic brim. If, at this stage you see the commonly associated In this case, induce labour without artificial rupture of meningomyelocoele, pass a steel or gum elastic male membranes.
They have been shown to order cefixime 100 mg mastercard antimicrobial jersey sunburn 50% sooner than areas on the same improve photodamage when combined with re patient that were left untreated  purchase cefixime 100mg overnight delivery antibiotics for staph acne. Polyhydroxy formulations are typically non-irritating when acids are also well tolerated when treating pho applied topically and have also been shown to best 100 mg cefixime antibiotics mirena todamage in dark skin generic 200 mg cefixime mastercard 3m antimicrobial. Alpha hydroxy acids are naturally melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpig occurring products present in sugar cane juice, mentation, the dyschromia of photoaging, len sour milk,tomato juice,grapes,and apples. It remains the gold stan colic acid, a 2-carbon molecule, and the small dard for treating hyperpigmentation. They cause exfoliation of the stratum the conversion of tyrosine to dopa [42, 43]. Dermal effects have also been dem With repeated application, hydroquinone may onstrated. Thickness from 2% (over-the-counter) to 4% (by prescrip of forearm skin was measured throughout the tion). Multiple studies have doc dermis was thicker and papillary dermal umented the efficacy of hydroquinone formu changes included increased thickness, in lations . This combination has versal of epidermal and dermal markers of been approved for use in South America, Singa photoaging. In therapy, or in combination with retinoids and addition,other new hydroquinone formulations other bleaching agents for photodamage. In addition, they can be cern regarding the use of hydroquinone is och used as maintenance therapies for treatment of ronosis. This condition is most often observed hyperpigmentation following 4–6 months of in African patients who have used products hydroquinone treatment. Clinically, ochronosis is char Other topical bleaching agents include arbutin, acterized by reticulated, sooty hyperpigmenta licorice, unsaturated fatty acids, soy extracts, tion of the face. Ochronosis is often considered serine protease inhibitors, ellagic acid, and res permanent. Findings ic acid (1,7-heptanedicarboxylic acid) that has were similar in sun-damaged compared with demonstrated beneficial therapeutic effects in non sun-damaged skin. Ninety days after peel the treatment of acne and several disorders of ing,he observed an expanded papillary dermis, hyperpigmentation . The thick fects on normally pigmented human skin,freck ness of the Grenz zone increased as the depth of les, senile lentigines, and nevi. Dis peeling agents to improve photodamage [50, 51, turbance of tyrosinase synthesis by azelaic acid 52]. Superficial, medium-depth, and deep-peel may also influence its therapeutic effects. Azela ing agents are currently utilized according to ic acid can be used as a hypopigmenting agent the degree of photodamage. It can be used for monotherapy or , these agents were popularized as peeling in combination with retinoids or other cosme agents for photodamage [54, 55, 56]. Com , in a mini pig model showed that applica pared with hydroquinone, these kojic acid for tion of 50 and 70% glycolic acid was compar mulations usually show less efficacy. Of that group, ic acid peeling, other investigators have report nine were treated with 4% hydroquinone and ed no benefit when using a series of four 70% serial salicylic acid peeling. Both groups glycolic acid peels to treat moderate photodam showed improvement in photodamage; how age . Kligman and Kligman  ushered salicylic acid into the modern arena of superfi 15. They treated 50 women with mild to moderate photodamage, reporting im Trichloroacetic acid and phenol peels (see peel provement in pigmented lesions, surface sections) have been used extensively to treat roughness, and reduction in fine lines. Clinical and histological creased activated fibroblasts, and organized ar assessments were performed at 7, 30, and 60 rays of collagen fibrils,suggesting that a combi days after peeling. A series of four peels lent reductions in keratinocyte atypia,hyperke were performed at 4-week intervals. Compared to fluo ruvic acid peeling, subjects demonstrated a rouracil, only one application of the peel was smoother texture, less evident fine wrinkles, necessary. Texturally rough skin, a manifestation of photodamage, improved by a series of five salicylic acid 20%/30% peels 15. Bhawan J, Andersen W, Lee J, Labadie R, Solares G the efficacy of topical agents (retinoids, antiox (1995) Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a mor phologic assessment of facial skin. J Cutan Pathol idants, and topical bleaching agents) used in 22:154–159 combination with superficial and/or medium 2. Cosmet Dermatol 16(S3): the safety assessment of retinyl palmitate and retin 46–48 ol. Suzuki S, Miyachi Y, Niwa Y, Isshiki N (1989) J Geriatr Dermatol 2:30–35 Significance of reactive oxygen species in distal flap 9. Darr D, Combs S, Dunston S, Manning T, Pinnel S Dermatol 135:18–25 (1992) Topical vitamin C protects porcine skin from 13. Br J Topical tretinoin for treatment of photodamaged Dermatol 127:247–253 skin: a multicenter study. Photochem Photobiol 46:213–221 9-cis Retinoic acid stereoisomer binds and activates 27. Arch Dermatol 131: formation of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl rad 1037–1044 ical in the presence of uroporphyrin and ascorbate. Tadaki T, Watanabe M, Kumasaka K, Tanita Y, Kato outstanding anti-oxidant in human blood plasma. Tohoku J Exp tivity modification, and metabolic effects of dehy Med 169:131–139 droascorbate and ascorbate in mammalian cells.