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Ma 2011 Intervention: No control group augmentin 375mg overnight delivery antibiotics for recurrent uti in pregnancy, comparison group received education Madson 2010 Intevention: Both treatment and control received same exercise intervention Maiers 2013 Intervention: exercise in all arms order augmentin 625mg online virus hitting us. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders (Review) 115 Copyright © 2015 the Cochrane Collaboration generic 375mg augmentin with mastercard antibiotics for acne keloidalis. Moffet 2006 Intervention: Multimodal approach within intervention groups without ability to order 375 mg augmentin mastercard infection nosocomiale differentiate each treatment techniques contribution Mongini 2012 Population: all types of headaches included. Murphy 2010 Intervention: Both treatment and control received same exercise intervention Nielsen 2010 Outcome: no patient important outcome. O’Leary 2007 Outcome Measures: the reported outcomes are not outcomes of interest to this review O’Leary 2007 JoPain Intervention: Multimodal approach within intervention groups without ability to differentiate each treatment techniques contribution Pato 2010 Intervention: Multimodal approach within intervention groups without ability to differentiate each treatment techniques contribution Pedersen 2013 Study design: prospective observational study. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders (Review) 116 Copyright © 2015 the Cochrane Collaboration. Skargren 1997 Intervention: Unable to separate data for exercise group (unclear if McKenzie treatment mobilization or exercise) Skillgate 2007 Intervention: Multimodal approach within intervention groups without ability to differentiate each treatment techniques contribution Skoglund 2011 Outcome: no baseline data. Soderlund 2000 Intervention: Multimodal approach within intervention groups without ability to differentiate each treatment techniques contribution Soderlund 2001 Intervention: Multimodal approach within intervention groups without ability to differentiate each treatment techniques contribution Song 2012 Abstract Outcome/Publication: Insufcient information. Wei 2007 Outcome Measure: not our primary outcomes of interest in this review Yang 2013 Intervention: multimodal treatment compared with acupuncture Ylinen 2003 Comparison: Control group included exercise. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders (Review) 214 Copyright © 2015 the Cochrane Collaboration. Criteria for ’Risk of Bias’ Assessment Random sequence generation (selection bias) Selection bias (biased allocation to interventions) due to inadequate generation of a randomized sequence There is a low risk of selection bias if the investigators describe a random component in the sequence generation process such as: referring to a random number table, using a computer random number generator, coin tossing, shufing cards or envelopes, throwing dice, drawing of lots, minimization (minimization may be implemented without a random element, and this is considered to be equivalent to being random). There is a high risk of selection bias if the investigators describe a non-random component in the sequence generation process, such as: sequence generated by odd or even date of birth, date (or day) of admission, hospital or clinic record number; or allocation by judgement of the clinician, preference of the participant, results of a laboratory test or a series of tests, or availability of the intervention. Allocation concealment (selection bias) Selection bias (biased allocation to interventions) due to inadequate concealment of allocations prior to assignment There is a low risk of selection bias if the participants and investigators enrolling participants could not foresee assignment because one of the following, or an equivalent method, was used to conceal allocation: central allocation (including telephone, web-based and pharmacy-controlled randomization); sequentially numbered drug containers of identical appearance; or sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes. There is a high risk of bias if participants or investigators enrolling participants could possibly foresee assignments and thus introduce selection bias, such as allocation based on: using an open random allocation schedule. Blinding of participants Performance bias due to knowledge of the allocated interventions by participants during the study There is a low risk of performance bias if blinding of participants was ensured and it was unlikely that the blinding could have been broken; or if there was no blinding or incomplete blinding, but the review authors judge that the outcome is not likely to be inuenced by lack of blinding. Blinding of personnel/ care providers (performance bias) Performance bias due to knowledge of the allocated interventions by personnel/care providers during the study There is a low risk of performance bias if blinding of personnel was ensured and it was unlikely that the blinding could have been broken; or if there was no blinding or incomplete blinding, but the review authors judge that the outcome is not likely to be inuenced by lack of blinding. Blinding of outcome assessor (detection bias) Detection bias due to knowledge of the allocated interventions by outcome assessors There is low risk of detection bias if the blinding of the outcome assessment was ensured and it was unlikely that the blinding could have been broken; or if there was no blinding or incomplete blinding, but the review authors judge that the outcome is not likely to be inuenced by lack of blinding, or: • for patient-reported outcomes in which the patient was the outcome assessor. The percentage of withdrawals and drop-outs should not exceed 20% for short-term follow-up and 30% for long-term follow-up and should not lead to substantial bias (these percentages are commonly used but arbitrary, not supported by literature) (Van Tulder 2003. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders (Review) 221 Copyright © 2015 the Cochrane Collaboration. Selective Reporting (reporting bias) Reporting bias due to selective outcome reporting There is low risk of reporting bias if the study protocol is available and all of the study’s pre-specied (primary and secondary) outcomes that are of interest in the review have been reported in the pre-specied way, or if the study protocol is not available but it is clear that the published reports include all expected outcomes, including those that were pre-specied (convincing text of this nature may be uncommon). There is a high risk of reporting bias if not all of the study’s pre-specied primary outcomes have been reported; one or more primary outcomes is reported using measurements, analysis methods or subsets of the data. Group similarity at baseline (selection bias) Bias due to dissimilarity at baseline for the most important prognostic indicators There is low risk of bias if groups are similar at baseline for demographic factors, value of main outcome measure(s), and important prognostic factors (examples in the eld of back and neck pain are duration and severity of complaints, vocational status, percentage of patients with neurological symptoms) (Van Tulder 2003). Co-interventions (performance bias) Bias because co-interventions were different across groups There is low risk of bias if there were no co-interventions or they were similar between the index and control groups (Van Tulder 2003). Compliance (performance bias) Bias due to inappropriate compliance with interventions across groups There is low risk of bias if compliance with the interventions was acceptable, based on the reported intensity/dosage, duration, number and frequency for both the index and control intervention(s). Intention-to-treat-analysis There is low risk of bias if all randomized patients were reported/analyzed in the group to which they were allocated by randomization. In sitting or standing Tilt your head toward one shoulder until you feel a stretch on the opposite side. In sitting or standing Turn your head to one side until you feel a stretch Hold for seconds and repeat to the other side. Sitting or standing with a straight back Pull your chin in, keeping your neck and back straight (not tipping your head forwards). There may be occasions where your information needs to shared with other care professionals to ensure you receive the best care possible. Charan Singh University, India 3 Department of Physiotherapy, Jamia Hamdard University, India *Corresponding author Shaji John Kachanathu ahi Email: Abstract: Non-specific neck pain is a common reason for adults to consult health care providers. Therefore one should always seek the most effective intervention(s) within the wide spectrum of treatments available. Knowledge on neck functions and pain, its relationship at different positional isometric training are important for developing exercise protocols, but very few studies have examined neck functions and pain in relationship to different positional isometric training. The purpose of this study was to quantify the diffence in isometric neck strength training at neutral and functional position. Based on inclusion criteria the participants were randomized into a group A (isometric exercise at neutral position) and group-B (isometric exercise at functional position), n=17 in each group. Furthermore, the of static contraction, prolonged static loads, or extreme semispinalis cervicis muscle shows lower directional working postures involving the neck/shoulder muscles specicity of activation in patients with neck pain, that are exposed to an increased risk for neck/shoulder is, patients demonstrate a reduced ability to produce a musculoskeletal disorders. Although various factors are well-dened muscular activation that appropriately related to neck pain, representative causes include reects the anatomic position of the semispinalis reduced range of movement and abnormal activation cervicis relative to the spine during the performance of patterns of para-cervical muscles . A study observed lower activity of the semispinalis cervicis and multidus, as measured with Numerous studies have demonstrated that neck muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging, and pain is associated with altered behavior of the cervical was also found in patients with mechanical neck pain muscles [4,5,6]. Studies have been observed that muscle when assessed at the levels C5-C6 and C7-T1 during dysfunction with neck pain in particular, the deep cervical extension with the head positioned in a neutral cervical muscles show dysfunction in patients with neck position . Lower specicity of inflammatory rheumatic diseases, severe psychiatric neck muscle activity may be interpreted as a functional illness and other diseases that prevent physical loading. It may represent an attempt to increase cervical spine stability similar to co-activation of Baseline variables included age, weight, cervical muscles by activating muscles over a larger height, years of job and daily working hours.
Hyperthermia associated with the administration of hydromorphone and some other opioids may lead to cheap 625 mg augmentin mastercard how quickly do antibiotics for uti work anxiety and signs of agitation in cats generic 625 mg augmentin amex super 8 bacteria. The effective management of pain relies on the ability of the veterinarian cheap augmentin 625mg on line infection questions on nclex, animal health technician and veterinary nurse to order augmentin 625 mg overnight delivery antibiotic bomb recognize pain, and assess and measure it in a reliable manner. When the dog is discharged home, owners should be given guidance on signs of pain and how to treat it. Objective measurements including heart rate, arterial blood pressure and plasma cortisol and catecholamine levels have been asso ciated with acute pain in dogs;11however, they are unreliable as stress, fear and anaesthetic drugs affect them. Thus, evaluation of pain in dogs is primarily subjective and based on behavioural signs. Pain recognition Behavioural expression of pain is species-specific and is influenced by age, breed, individual temperament and the presence of addi tional stressors such as anxiety or fear. Debilitating disease can dramatically reduce the range of behavioural indicators of pain that the animal would normally show. Therefore, when assessing a dog for pain a range of factors should be considered, including the type, anatomical location and duration of surgery, the medical problem, or extent of injury. It is helpful to know the dog’s normal behaviour; however, this is not always practical and strang ers, other dogs, and many analgesic and other drugs. Pain assessment protocol the most important step in managing acute pain well is to actively assess the dog for signs of pain on a regular basis, and use the outcomes of these assessments (through observation and interaction) along with knowledge of the disease/surgical status and history of the animal to make a judgement on the pain state of the dog. It is recommended that carers adopt a specific protocol and approach every dog in a consistent manner to assess them for pain. Dysphoria should be considered where panting, nausea, vomiting or vocal ization occurs immediately following opioid administration. Where a dog is judged to be in pain, treatment should be given immediately to provide relief. Dogs should be assessed continuously to ensure that treatment has been effective, and thereafter on a 2–4 hourly basis. Pain measurement tools: these should possess the key properties of validity, reliability and sensitivity to change. Pain is an abstract construct so there is no gold standard for measurement and as the goal is to measure the affective component of pain. When using these scales, the observer’s judgment can be affected by factors such as age, gender, personal health and clinical experience, thus introducing a degree of inter-observer variability and limiting the reliability of the scale. However, when used consistently, these are effective as part of a protocol to evaluate pain as described above. The University of Melbourne Pain Scale combines physiologic data and behavioural responses. It may also be present in the absence of ongoing clinical disease, persisting beyond the expected course of an acute disease process – such as neuropathic pain following onychectomy, limb or tail amputation. As cats live longer there has been an increased recognition of chronic pain associated with certain conditions, which has a negative impact on quality of life (QoL). In recent years, treatment options for some cancers in companion animals have become a viable alternative to euthanasia, and manag ing chronic pain and the impact of aggressive treatment protocols has become a challenging and important welfare issue. The behavioural changes associated with chronic pain may develop gradually and may be subtle, making them most easily detected by someone very familiar with the animal (usually the owner). Owner assessments are the mainstay of the assessment of chronic pain, but how these tools should be constructed optimally for cats is not fully understood. Many of the tools for measuring chronic pain in humans measure its impact on the patient’s QoL, which includes physical and psychological aspects. However, we recommend that behaviours are assessed in these broad categories: • General mobility. Re-evaluation over time will help determine the impact of pain, and the extent of pain relief. It may also be present in the absence of ongoing clinical disease, persisting beyond the expected course of an acute disease process. For many chronic conditions, chronic pain is a challenge as is the impact of aggres sive treatment protocols. Treatment options for chronic pain are complex, and response to treatment is subject to much individual variation. Accordingly the veterinarian must monitor health status effectively on an ongoing basis in order to tailor treatment to the individual. Chronic pain recognition Pain recognition is the keystone of effective pain management. The behavioural changes associated with chronic pain may develop gradually and may be subtle, so that they can only be detected by someone very familiar with the animal (usually the owner). In people, chronic pain has both a physical and a psychological impact which adversely affect the patient’s QoL. As a consequence many of the tools for measuring human chronic pain measure its impact on the patient’s QoL. At present, a few tools have been described to evaluate chronic pain in dogs and these have provided information about the range of alterations in the demeanour, mood and behaviour of dogs as a consequence of chronic pain. Broadly these can be categorized as follows: • Vitality and mobility – how energetic, happy, active/ lethargic, contented, playful is the dog; ease of lying, sitting, jumping up, toler ance to exercise • Mood and demeanour including states of alertness, anxiety, whether it is for example withdrawn, sad, dull, confident, its playfulness and sociability • Levels of distress. Out of this work some key messages have emerged: • Owner information is a key resource when assessing chronic pain • Owners may need prompting and close questioning to report changes in their dog’s behaviours as they may not associate these changes with chronic pain • There is an evidence base for the behaviours that alter in association with chronic pain (see above); these should be the basis of exploration with owners • Changes in dogs’ behaviours may be subtle, and take place gradually. Veterinarians need to ensure that when questioning the owner they prompt owners to reflect over a period of time (months) • the veterinarian may find it useful to identify behaviours from the owner that can be used as marker behaviours to help determine response to treatment. Careful assessment of these four categories and their adverse effects will guide the prioritization of treatment strategies.
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In 2015 purchase augmentin 625mg with mastercard antibiotics effective against strep throat, the same people may be able to order augmentin 625mg on-line antibiotic resistance of staphylococcus aureus classes in each population may be quite distinct cheap augmentin 625 mg mastercard antibiotic diarrhea. In draw on public transport that is accessible to discount 625mg augmentin fast delivery antibiotics for streptococcus viridans uti people the United States, for example, the life expectancy with disability and, thus, fnd that their functional of poorly educated African-American adults may ability is far better, despite the intrinsic capacity have changed little since the 1950s (19, 20). Distinguishing between trends While the evidence from high-income in intrinsic capacity and environmental changes countries is confusing, data from low and mid to better measure functional ability thus requires dle-income countries are largely absent. One specifc questions, yet the instruments commonly exception is China, where a comparison of large used generally do not make this distinction. Declines in intrinsic capacity generally start in vision, hearing, speech and intellect (21). Low and middle-income countries are cur Although most older people are experiencing rently experiencing the epidemiological transition these more minor and subtle changes, informa shown in Fig. Countries such as tion on trends in capacity during this phase of China are nearing the end of this transition, and life is extremely limited. Population Increases in life expectancy in these settings diversity is also obvious in these fndings, with are now largely due to increasing survival in falls in disability largely observed in urban areas. Tese results may and many people in these countries face far higher provide a fair comparison between our health exposures to environmental and occupational and that of our parents, but it is possible that toxins, and stressors than people in high-income the trend between our parents and their par settings. One study that does eases and environmental stressors may impact in capture trends during this earlier period is con unpredictable ways on subsequent morbidity in sistent with the health of older people being sig older adults. Impacts could occur, for example, nifcantly better than that of their grandparents if these exposures enhanced “infammageing”, and great-grandparents (18). This found lower which has been suggested as a possible driver of age-specifc prevalence rates of specifc chronic cardiovascular disease (22, 23). Terefore, it is not diseases in United States army recruits across appropriate to simply extrapolate morbidity trends the 20th century when compared with those observed in higher-income countries to lower recruited during the Civil War (18). This is accompanied detail some of the health-related characteristics by a broad range of psychosocial changes. Although there is marked the discussion does not attempt to summarize diversity in how these changes are experienced at every condition and trend, but highlights key an individual level, general trends are seen when issues that can provide a frame for understand the population as a whole is considered (25). However, these losses in intrinsic capacity can be compensated for by adaptation, and are ofen Underlying changes accompanied by gains in experience and knowl edge. This might explain why workplace produc As described in Chapter 1, at a biological level, tivity does not seem to fall with age (Box 3. Ageing and productivity the effects of underlying age-related changes in intrinsic capacity on productivity in the workplace have only just begun to be studied. One reason why is that productivity is difficult to measure objectively, with ratings by peers and supervisors often representing stereotypical conceptions rather than the actual performance of older workers (26). Second, not all occupations lend themselves to the objective measurement of productivity. Because of this, the small amount of research that has been undertaken is often limited to workplaces that enable objective measure ments, such as the number of errors or amount of sales. Overall, productivity does not seem to fall with age, although it may decrease as time spent in a particular job increases, with routinization leading to falls in motivation, or overuse leading to physical harm (27). Thus, one study found that the number of errors committed by each team on the assembly line in a car factory fell slightly with age after controlling for downward selectivity (that is, early retirement, disability) and upward selectivity (that is, promotion). The authors concluded that “older workers are especially able to grasp difficult situations and then concentrate on vital tasks ” (28). This finding highlights the fact that age-related losses, such as a slowing of the speed of information processing or the loss of the ability to multitask, need not have negative impacts on work productivity because up to a certain point, they can be compensated for by the life and work experiences of older people. For example, falls in grip strength that are observed at the popula tion level may not be seen in subpopulations that have to use their hands for everyday work, although this difference may reverse in later life. Thus, after the age of 80 years, manual labourers have lower levels of physical strength than white-collar workers (29). An intermediate amount of age diver sity has been positively related to productivity, possibly reflecting the fact that age diversity has costs (in terms of communication and social integration) as well as benefits (in terms of having a larger knowledge pool to draw from for solutions). Companies emphasizing creative work profited from age diversity, whereas companies focusing on routine tasks did worse under conditions of age diversity (30). Women tend example for grip strength and gait speed, these to have weaker grip strength than men, and for refect both underlying trends in musculoskel both sexes strength declines with increasing age. However, the peak level reached varies mark edly, with people in India and Mexico generally Movement functions having lower strength across all ages and sexes. Afer a peak in early adulthood, muscle mass Tese diferences may refect a mix of genetics tends to decline with increasing age, and this and early-life factors, such as nutrition. With age, bone mass, uring muscle function is to measure hand grip or density, tends to fall, particularly among post strength, which is a strong predictor of mortal menopausal women. This can progress to a point ity, independent of any disease-related infu where the risk of fracture is signifcantly increased ences (32, 33). Hip fractures are a particu 4 metres), by age, sex and country larly devastating type of osteoporotic fracture, and as a result of population ageing they will become China Ghana 1. This is refected in a decrease Male Female in gait speed – that is, the time someone takes Source: (34). Gait speed is infu enced by muscle strength, joint limitations and other factors, such as coordination and proprio ception, and has been demonstrated to be one at higher frequencies. It results from cochlear of the most powerful predictors of future out ageing; environmental exposures, such as noise; comes in older age (39). Ageing is frequently associated with declines Age is also associated with complex func in both vision and hearing, although there is tional changes in the eye that result in presbyo marked diversity in how this is experienced at an pia, a decrease in focusing ability that leads to individual level. Age-related hearing loss (known the blurring of near vision, which ofen becomes as presbycusis) is bilateral and most marked apparent in midlife (46).
Likewise order 375mg augmentin otc antibiotic used for kidney infection, National Research Council it became Major Scientic Discoveries 397 clear that 1% was too high and purchase 375mg augmentin amex household antibiotics for dogs, therefore cheap 625mg augmentin visa virus 07092012, the spacecraft maximum Combustion Product Analyzer Ensured allowable concentration was reduced to cheap augmentin 625mg visa does oral antibiotics for acne work 0. Even this lower value proved Crew Breathed Clean Air After Small to be marginal under some conditions. On the seventh joint mission in 1998, no harm seemed to have occurred during an That was especially true in the absence inadvertent valve switch on an air-purifying scrubber. In fact, during this time, the of gravity where convection was not crew—including American Andrew Thomas—participated in a video presentation available to carry warm, exhaled air upward from the astronaut’s breathing transmitted back to Earth; however, shortly after the valve switch, the crew zone. As on Earth, when occupants of a house or building during a flight caused the crew to experience headaches simultaneously, it can indicate that the air has been severely experience headaches on awakening, degraded. Archival samples confirmed the accuracy of the compounds is not a precise science analyzer’s results. The spaceflight environment is like Earth in that exposure standards can control activities when environmental monitors suggest the need for control. For example, youth outdoor sports activities are curtailed when ozone levels exceed certain standards on Earth. Likewise, spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for carbon monoxide, a toxic product of combustion, were used to determine criteria for the use of protective masks in the event of an electrical burn. During the incident, the analyzer measured information during the increases in the four compounds. Elektron (Russian oxygen Grab samples conrmed the higher generation system) incident in levels for these compounds and veried that the analyzer had September 2006 when the worked. The next available data crew tried to restart the showed the contaminants had returned to very low levels. Data showed Astronaut Bonnie Dunbar goes that the event had started through her checklist to start before the crew noticed the the volatile organic analyzer sample acquisition sequence. For example, the arriving at the scene of a chemical Toxic containments may be released monitoring requirements for hydrogen spill, fire, or building where occupants from burning materials depending cyanide, another toxic combustion have been overcome by noxious on the type of materials and level of product, were based on spacecraft fumes. When colorless gas) released from most environmental monitoring, spaceflight a spill, thermodegradation, or unusual thermodegradation events; hydrogen monitors needed the ability to indicate odor occurs on a spacecraft, crew chloride released from polyvinyl when safe conditions had returned so members are the first responders. They need the tools to assess the carbonyl fluoride associated with situation and track the progress of the Teflon; and hydrogen cyanide released Water cleanup. Although the provide crews with novel instruments range monitored for each marker effort to set specific water-quality to manage degradations in air quality compound was based on the established standards, called spacecraft water caused by unexpected events. One of the first highest concentration that might be thermodegradations events, which spacecraft water-exposure guidelines released in a fire. Fire in a sealed, An upgraded combustion product often found in water that has been held remote capsule is a frightening event. High nickel levels had been when technology advances improved indicate when it is safe for the astronauts observed from time to time in the shuttle the reliability and shrank the size of to remove their protective gear. Before the final development schedule-breaking activity at Kennedy From Microorganisms— of the analyzer, however, a more Space Center to deal with these events. The combustion Toxicants From Combustion chronic problems such as some products analyzer requirements were to cancers and serious liver problems. Fire is always a concern in any measure key contaminants in the air In space, astronauts are exposed to environment, and a flame is sometimes following thermodegradation incidents, microorganisms and their by-products difficult to detect. First responders track the effectiveness of cleanup from the food, water (both used must have instruments to quickly efforts, and determine when it was safe for food and beverage rehydration, assess the contaminants in the air on to remove protective gear. With assistance from industry Microbial growth in the closed threat to the crew members, however, and government standards. Preflight monitoring for for human exploration, the shuttle and bio-corrosion represent other spaceflight was thorough and included was designed to be used over many potential microbial-induced problems. Risks associated reported dust in the air and occasional to ensure compliance with these with the long-term accumulation eye irritation. The human body alone sheds about 1 billion skin As illustrated, a high-efciency particulate cells every week. The filters pictured below, is of a higher quality than removed most skin cells (approximately purication systems used 100 micrometers) and larger airborne in ofces and homes. When the shuttle was modified for longer flights of up to 2 weeks, an auxiliary cabin air cleaner provided filtration that removed particles over 1 micrometer. As the air recirculated through the vehicle, the filter captured skin cells, lint, microorganisms, and other debris. All of these evolutionary and communications were included that involve flight safety, physiological phases required changes in the selection in mission support. Additionally, the and preventive medical care of their the experimental operational test vehicle longitudinal study of astronaut health active and inactive medical conditions. The medical team worked with Extended Duration Orbiter Project, of short-duration spaceflight on crews. Astronaut Selection and Medical Standards Space Adaptation Syndrome Due to increasing levels of flight the first thing an astronaut noticed was a fluid shift from his or her lower extremities experience and changes in medical to his or her torso and upper bodies, resulting in a facial fullness. Ultimately, this fluid delivery, medical standards for shift caused a stretch on the baroreceptors in the arch of the aorta and carotid arteries astronaut selection evolved over the and the astronaut would lose up to 1. The shuttle medical In space, the human body experiences a lengthening and stretching of tendons and standards were designed to support ligaments that hold bones, joints, and muscles together. Also, there was an unloading short-duration spaceflights of as many of the extensor muscles that included the back of the neck and torso, buttocks, and as 30 days. Preventive measures and treatment included on-orbit with experts in aerospace medicine exercise, together with pain medications. Other problems included headache, changes in visual acuity, of medical issues related to flights and sinus congestion, ear blocks, nose bleeds, sore throats, changes in taste and smell, the best evidence-based medicine at that time.