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The management of pregnant patients with anti-  Coloma Bazan E purchase cialis 10 mg amex erectile dysfunction juice drink, Donate Lopez C generic cialis 10mg without prescription erectile dysfunction statistics cdc, Moreno Lozano P cialis 2.5 mg visa zantac causes erectile dysfunction, Cervera R 10mg cialis erectile dysfunction causes relationship problems, Espinosa G. Are there additional options for the treatment of in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome when antiphospholipid refractory obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome? Use of new oral anticoagulants in antiphospholipid report of a task force at the 13th International Congress on Antiphospholipid syndrome. The latest classifcation criteria (Sydney 2006) recognize just three tests to defne this syndrome-lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antobodies and anti β2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies. Treatment of thrombotic events involves lifelong anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists like warfarin. Keywords: Antiphospholipid syndrome, autoimmune disease, treatment to antiphospholipid syndrome. Several mechanism have been suggested to explain the prothrombotic state induced by antibodies to the Department of Internal Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Address for correspondence: Dr. Varun Dhir, Department of Internal Medicine, Rheumatology Services, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh-160 012, India. Activated platelets also synthesize thromboxane A2 altering the prostacyclin- Clinical Features thromboxane balance to favour thrombosis. The presence of Obstetric and fetal complications include early and one clinical criterion and one laboratory criterion late pregnancy losses and pre-eclampsia. Other Table 1: Revised Sapporo or Sidney criteria for classifcation of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome Clinical criteria the presence of either vascular thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity, is defned as follows: Vascular thrombosis is defned as one or more episodes of venous, arterial, or small vessel thrombosis, with unequivocal imaging or histologic evidence of thrombosis in any tissue or organ. Pregnancy morbidity is defned as otherwise unexplained fetal death at ≥10 weeks gestation of a morphologically normal fetus, or one or more premature births before 34 weeks of gestation because of eclampsia, pre-eclampsia, or placental insuffciency*, or three or more embryonic (<10 week gestation) pregnancy losses unexplained by maternal or paternal chromosomal abnormalities or by maternal anatomic or hormonal causes. Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences March 2014 | Vol 19 | Issue 1 Dhir and Pinto: Antiphospholipid syndrome 21 Table 2: Major manifestations of antiphospholipid described by Asherson in 1992 and hence the eponym syndrome as per the europhospholipid cohort study Ashersons syndrome. Laboratory fndings include thrombocytopenia in a majority (3/4th) which is often Cerebral vein thrombosis Skin gangrene (2. The lupus anticoagulant effect A meta-analysis looked at the relationship of the test is due to antibodies against a variety of phospholipids positivity and the risk of late (<24 weeks) and early or phospholipid-protein complexex. The usual trend in a large study was that 50% the anticardiolipin antibody test is perhaps the of all patients of antiphopholipid syndrome had lupus most commonly performed test for the detection anticoagulant positivity; however, lupus anticoagulant of this syndrome. Evidence of an inhibitor demonstrated by mixing studies: Typically mix normal pooled plasma in a 1:1 or similar ratio with the patients sample ↓ Lupus anticoagulant Confrmation of the phospholipids-dependent nature of the inhibitor: the lupus anticoagulant is both a phenomenon and Reversal of the prolongation by adding excess phospholipids, which a test! The phenomenon was the one frst recognized quench the antiphospholipid antibodies. Unfractionated Further immunosuppression if there is concomitant active systemic lupus heparin can be given as an infusion or by subcutaneous erythematosus – Injection cyclophosphamide 15 mg per Kg body weight in 1 pint normal saline over 2 hours (at this dose premedication with injections. Similarly prehydration may or may not preferred, because of ease of administration, lack of be given. Studies on binding of antiphospholipid antibody-β2-glycoprotein I oral steroids did not fnd them to be effcacious in complexes to phospholipid bilayers. This study used 81 mg of aspirin and Treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome after a mean duration of followup of 2. However, a recent meta- In patients with just obstetric complications (never had analysis which included 11 studies (10 observational thrombosis), the current recommendation is treatment and 1 interventional) with 1208 patients found that with heparin and low dose aspirin for the duration of the low dose aspirin reduced the risk of frst thrombosis pregnancy and postpartum till 6 weeks. It has also been recommended with high risk such as patients with triple positivity and that low dose aspirin be started pre-conceptionally in with additional cardiovascular risk factors. However, a majority of mediators of infammation as well as antiphospholipid patients in this study had recurrent fetal losses before antibodies (plasma exchange), pharmacologic control Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences March 2014 | Vol 19 | Issue 1 Dhir and Pinto: Antiphospholipid syndrome 25 of infammatory cascade (pulse steroids or intravenous 3. Mechanisms of disease: immunoglobulins ± other immunosuppressants like Antiphospholipid antibodies-from clinical association to pathologic mechanism. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol 2008;4:192- cyclophosphamide especially in case of associated 9. Controversies and unresolved removal of necrotic tissues (like fnger/toe amputations) issues in antiphospholipid syndrome pathogenesis and may help to quell thrombotic storm. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2008;22:155-74, (daily) is widely considered to be the most effective viii. Management of women with recurrent pregnancy losses the multimodal therapy was 70%, indicating that and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Am J Reprod early aggressive intervention may lead to reasonable Immunol 2013;69:596-607. International consensus statement on Prognosis preliminary classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome: Report of an international workshop. International consensus statement europhosholipid cohort in which patients were on oral on an update of the classification criteria for definite anticoagulation, only 2. The prognosis of patients with pregnancy manifestations and patterns of disease expression in a cohort morbidity was also fairly good in the europhospholipid of 1,000 patients. Current concepts and Conclusions new trends in the diagnosis and management of recurrent miscarriage. Antiphospholipid antibodies and beta 2-glycoprotein-I in 500 women with recurrent miscarriage: Results of being recognized on an ongoing basis. Low dose aspirin is often added to both antiphospholipid syndrome: An update of the Utah regimens. Hanouna G, Morel N, Le Thi Huong D, Josselin L, Vauthier- Brouzes D, Saadoun D, et al. Current antiphospholipid antibodies do not contribute to concepts on the pathogenesis of the antiphospholipid adverse pregnancy outcomes.
I believe the answers to these questions will guide us as we seek ways to address the problem we have before us generic cialis 20mg online erectile dysfunction treatment kerala. It must be done in a way that protects both human and animal health discount cialis 5mg mastercard erectile dysfunction treatment videos, and it should not unnecessarily disrupt the animal agricultural community buy 20mg cialis with mastercard beta blocker causes erectile dysfunction. I look forward to hearing the views and thoughts of our wit- nesses this afternoon quality cialis 5 mg impotence meaning. I am especially interested in hearing the views of our agency experts on this matter. For decades, doctors have known that the widespread use of anti- biotics is going to speed the development of bacterial mutation in antimicrobial resistance but what we dont do is give antibiotics to every schoolchild just to prevent infection. Today, 70 percent of all health care-associated infections in the United States are resistant to at least one antibiotic. But what would happen if it finally becomes resistant to the few remaining effective antibiotics? The vast majority of evidence for the last three decades points to link- age between routine low-level antibiotic use in food animals and the transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to people, often through the food supply. The American Medical Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Public Health Association and the American College of Preventive Medicine have all called for a significant reduction in the amount of antibiotics we use in food animal production. Antibiotics have four purposes: to treat disease, control the spread of disease once an infection has occurred, pre- vent disease from occurring and promote the growth in animals. There are other solutions out there that will keep our food supply safe, our society healthy and our antibiotics effective, and I hope this hearing today will awaken our colleagues to the very real threat to public health posed by the declining effectiveness of antibiotics. Any use of antibiotics any- where can cause bacteria to select for resistance but overuse and misuse of antibiotics simply gives bacteria an environment-rich sit- uation to develop resistance and multiply. To really cut health care costs, save lives and preserve the effec- tiveness of these vital drugs, we have to eliminate unnecessary an- tibiotic use everywhere we find it, in hospitals, nursing homes, the general community and sometimes even on the farm. Studies have indicated the antibiotics upon which our doc- tors and hospitals relied are losing their effectiveness in treating very serious illnesses. Our committee is right to investigate it and right to consider potential solutions. I am, however, worried about some of the discussions relating to limiting the use of antibiotics in the agricultural setting. My Con- gressional district is home to a significant agricultural industry which directly employs over 17,000 people and countless more indi- rectly. It is the linchpin of our economy and an industry easily af- fected by regulation here in Washington, D. Many of the farmers in my district rely on the use of antibiotics to keep animal popu- lations healthy and run productive businesses. And while we must be mindful of the importance of equipping farmers and veterinar- ians with the tools they need to treat animals when they are sick, obviously we all have to be mindful of the strategic necessary of preventing illnesses from spreading. Todays witnesses offer a variety of opinions on this issue, many of which take different approaches to the same issue. I look for- ward to the testimony and to learning more about their perspec- tives. I believe it is critical that we study the evidence further and take into account all options and all sides of the issue before decid- ing whether to move forward. If the committee does decide to move forward on this issue, it is my hope we will move in a moderate and bipartisan fashion while working with stakeholders in the agri- cultural industry. Thank you, Chairman, for holding this important hearing on the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture, and I also want to thank all the witnesses who came here today, and I hope that we can have a meaningful conversation on this issue. Most Americans when they go into a supermarket and buy some pork or chicken or beef have no idea where that food came from how or how it wound up in the supermarket or in their kitchen. A lot of public health officials have never been to a farm and seen with their own eyes and talked to production people involved in ag- riculture about how that food is taken care of and how it is grown and how it is processed and how it is shipped off to the packing house where it is ultimately dealt with and sent to their table. A lot of parents take their kids into doctors offices and demand the use of antibiotics for something that wont even respond be- cause it is a viral infection. We are a culture that looks for simple, easy answers when oftentimes we are talking about complex trade- offs, and it is no different here talking about the very real public health concerns about antibiotic resistance and very real produc- tion concerns about food safety and food supply. When I was a student at Iowa State University, it was a well- known accepted fact that it was more difficult to get into the Iowa State Veterinary Medicine College than the University of Iowa Col- lege of Medicine, and yet we seem to think that public health re- search is somehow in some way more superior than animal veteri- nary research even though oftentimes they come from the same raw data. So my hope for this hearing is that we can all agree on some fun- damental things: A, that antibiotics are essential for fighting bac- terial infections in humans, and yet there is still significant dis- agreement in some sectors about the specific relationship between the use of antibiotics in feed products as they relate to consumption of food and how that affects antibiotic resistance in humans. I have always been an advocate for science-based approach and I think this is an issue that demands careful, thoughtful consideration of all scientific points of view. Rather than come to conclusions based upon ideology, I think we need to look through the entire body of research available. There many well-intentioned people on both sides of this debate, and my hope is, we can continue to have meaningful discussions around tables like this, talk about the best forward to move forward to make sure we continue to have a safe, reliable food supply and are doing everything we can to protect human health. Joshua Sharfstein, who is the Principal Deputy Commissioner for the Food and Drug Administration. John Clifford, who is Deputy Administrator for Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service for the Department of Agriculture, and finally is Rear Admiral Ali Khan, who is Assistant Surgeon General, Acting Deputy Director of the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Dis- ease with the Centers for Disease Control. And I should mention, I guess we are expecting votes, but I am going to proceed and then we will see. We may have to—well, we will have to interrupt at some point but I think we might as well start with Dr. Good afternoon, Chairman Pallone and Ranking Member Shimkus and members of the subcommittee. Joshua Sharfstein, Principal Deputy Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services. I remember vividly in 1998 when I was a pediatric resident and the Centers for Disease Control and the American Academy of Pe- diatrics published principles for the judicious use of antibiotics in common pediatric infections including the common cold, ear infec- tions, sinusitis and sore throat.
In rats order 5 mg cialis visa erectile dysfunction with normal testosterone levels, the two enzyme activities were induced approximately 12- and fivefold cheap 20 mg cialis fast delivery erectile dysfunction quizlet, res- pectively (Smith et al cheap cialis 10mg otc erectile dysfunction cycling. During that time discount cialis 5 mg without prescription erectile dysfunction jacksonville, one-third of the rats died, and the urinary porphyrin concentration increased to 100 times the control level. It was further noted that, whereas the animals that died began wasting 5 days after cessation of intake of hexachlorobenzene, when relatively minor disturbances in porphyrins were found, the survivors developed major porphyrin disturbances without wasting; the deaths were therefore not correlated with porphyria (Rozman et al. Microsomal cytochrome P450 was induced to a greater extent in male than in female Fischer rats, while cytochrome b5 was induced only in males. Aminopyrine-N-de- methylase activity doubled in animals of each sex after treatment, while that of Ah hydroxylase was 16 times the control value in females and 1. After hexachlorobenzene treatment, the phospholipid content of microsomal membranes in liver was increased, while the cholesterol content was unchanged. Ana- lysis of the phospholipid pattern showed that hexachlorobenzene interfered with the bio- synthesis of phospholipids containing choline. Hexachlorobenzene showed more pronounced features of a phenobarbital type inducer in males than in females (Cantoni et al. Taken together, these results indicate that hexachlorobenzene is a weak agonist for the Ah receptor and suggest that some of its effects are mediated by its interaction with this gene-regu- latory protein (Hahn et al. After 42 days, the mice were injected a second time with 75 mg/kg bw hexachlorobenzene and killed 20 days later. In wild-type mice, the hepatic uroporphyrin concentration ranged from 70 to 310 nmol/g of liver, whereas in null mice it was < 1 nmol/g of liver. This study also showed that hexachlorobenzene did not increase hepatic microsomal uroporphy- rinogen oxidation in Cyp1a2(-/-) mice (Sinclair et al. Female B6-Ahb mice (Ah receptor, approximately 30–70 fmol/mg of cytosolic protein) and B6-Ahd mice (Ah receptor, undetectable) were pretreated with iron at 500 mg/kg bw (given as iron dextran) and then fed a diet containing 0 or 200 mg/kg hexachlorobenzene for up to 17 weeks. Urinary excretion of porphyrins was increased after 7 weeks of hexachlorobenzene treatment in B6-Ahb mice, and by 15 weeks was over 200 times greater than that of mice given only iron. In B6-Ahd mice, porphyrin excretion did not begin to increase until after 13 weeks, and after 15 weeks was only six times greater than that of controls. Similar differences were seen in the hepatic porphyrin concentrations at 15 weeks: B6-Ahb, 1110 ± 393; B6-Ahd, 17. The activity of the enzyme was only slightly inhibited in the absence of iron, and was not inhibited in the absence of hexachlorobenzene. While there is a marked sex difference in hexachlorobenzene-induced porphyria (see above), the induction of oxidation of uroporphyrinogen I to uroporphyrin I by hepatic microsomes was not correlated with the sex difference in porphyria deve- lopment. Hexachlorobenzene was found to be a potent inducer of malic enzyme gene expression in the liver of female Wistar rats exposed to 1 g/kg bw by gavage for 9–15 days. No changes in T4 or T3 concentrations were found in rat liver, and the activities of other thyroid hormone-responsive enzymes were not found to be increased. In contrast, in brown adipose tissue of male Wistar rats given 1 g/kg bw hexachlorobenzene by gavage for 30 days, the activities of malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and L-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydro- genase were decreased in both euthyroid and thyriodectomized rats (Alvarez et al. Administration of 1 g/kg bw hexachlorobenzene to rats for 10 days caused a 50% reduction in epidermal growth factor receptor–ligand binding (Randi et al. The expression was localized to the centrilobular region, with the most intense staining nearest the central vein. Evaluation of porphyrin fluorescence also revealed centrilobular accumulation, with average concentrations of porphyrin of 0. The results were compared with those for 28 control workers who had not been exposed. The 28 controls were men working in other companies in the same geographical region and of the same median age, but without detectable serum concentrations of hexachlorobenzene. In the exposed group, there was no correlation between the occurrence of micronuclei and age, current smoking, length of employment at the factory or hexa- chlorobenzene concentration in serum. The authors noted that it was not possible to identify a particular factor that might account for the difference in the frequency of micronuclei (da Silva Augusto et al. In a study from one laboratory, hexachlorobenzene induced alkali-labile sites in human hepatocytes and micronuclei in rat and human hepatocytes in vitro. A total of 23 preneoplastic and neo- plastic lesions obtained from these mice were analysed for mutations of Ha-ras at codon 61, since these often occur at high frequency in the livers of mice treated with carci- nogens. Only two mutations were found: an A → T transversion in a focus of altered cells and a C → A transversion in a trabecular-cell carcinoma (Rumsby et al. The experi- mental results indicate that hexachlorobenzene induces hypothyroidism in rats through its main metabolite, pentachlorophenol, and through tetrachlorohydroquinone. Displacement of hormones from serum carriers by these metabolites could be a factor in the induction of the observed hypothyroidism. In addition, hexachlorobenzene increases the metabolism of T4 by inducing glucuronosyl transferase and decreases type-1 deiodinase activity. Therefore, the decreased T4 concentrations in serum of rats after exposure to hexachlorobenzene may be due to a combined effect of displacement of T4 from carriers, increased glucuronidation of T4 and enhanced bile flow. The mechanism of thyroid tumour development in hamsters is probably due to effects similar to those in rats. The hexachlorobenzene poisoning incident in Turkey demonstrated that hexachlorobenzene can produce porphyria in humans. The acquired porphyria was more frequent and more severe in women, and the effects of the exposure may be exacerbated by estrogens. There is evidence for a role of the Ah receptor in some but not all of the effects of hexachlorobenzene in the liver.
Miosis be achieved with epidural administration of certain strong agonist Pupillary constriction is a characteristic effect of all opioids except drugs (eg buy discount cialis 2.5 mg on-line erectile dysfunction pills for heart patients, fentanyl and morphine) buy cialis 20mg on line erectile dysfunction protocol book scam. Fentanyl has also been used by meperidine buy cialis 5mg otc erectile dysfunction zyrtec, which has a muscarinic blocking action 10mg cialis with visa impotence losartan. Miosis is blocked by the opioid antagonist nal- severe pain and in the chronic setting, moderate agonists are given oxone and by atropine. Miscellaneous Opioid analgesics, especially morphine, can cause flushing and pru- B. Treatment of Diarrhea Selective antidiarrheal opioids include diphenoxylate and loperamide. Management of Acute Pulmonary Edema the Skill Keeper Answers appear at the end of the chapter. Anesthesia Marked tolerance can develop to the just-mentioned acute phar- Opioids are used as preoperative medications and as intraopera- macologic effects, with the exception of miosis and constipation. These characteristics can lead to decreased analgesia, or even precipitate withdrawal symp- F. Opioid Dependence toms, when such drugs are used in patients taking conventional Methadone, one of the longer acting opioids, is used in the man- full μ-receptor agonists. Buprenorphine has a long duration of agement of opioid withdrawal states and in maintenance programs effect, binding strongly to μ receptors. In withdrawal states, methadone permits a slow taper- ity of buprenorphine may be clinically useful (eg, to suppress ing of opioid effect that diminishes the intensity of abstinence withdrawal signs in dependency states), this property renders its symptoms. Buprenorphine (see later discussion) has an even lon- effects resistant to naloxone reversal, since the antagonist drug ger duration of action and is sometimes used in withdrawal states. In overdose, respiratory depression caused by In maintenance programs, the prolonged action of methadone nalbuphine may also be resistant to naloxone reversal. Naloxone blocks the euphoria-inducing effects of doses of shorter acting is included in some formulations of these agonist-antagonist drugs opioids (eg, heroin, morphine). Dizziness, sweating, and nausea may also occur, Most of the adverse effects of the opioid analgesics (eg, nausea, and anxiety, hallucinations, and nightmares are possible adverse constipation, respiratory depression) are predictable extensions effects. Respiratory depression may be less intense than with of their pharmacologic effects. In addition, overdose and drug pure agonists but is not predictably reversed by naloxone. Overdose Physical dependence occurs, but the abuse liability of mixed A triad of pupillary constriction, comatose state, and respiratory agonist-antagonist drugs is less than that of the full agonists. Miscellaneous of naloxone, an antagonist drug, results in prompt signs of recov- Tramadol is a weak μ-receptor agonist only partially antagonized ery. Its analgesic activity is mainly based on blockade of as naloxone and other therapeutic measures, especially ventilatory the reuptake of serotonin; it is a weak norepinephrine reuptake support. Tramadol is effective in treatment of moderate pain and has been used as an adjunct to opioid analgesics in chronic pain B. No significant effects anesthetics, antipsychotic drugs, tricyclic antidepressants, and on cardiovascular functions or respiration have been reported. Concomitant use of certain opioids (eg, meperi- Tapentadol has strong norepinephrine reuptake-inhibiting dine) with monoamine oxidase inhibitors increases the incidence activity (blocked by α antagonists) and only modest μ-opioid of hyperpyrexic coma. It is less effective than oxycodone in the treat- serotonin syndrome when used with selective serotonin reuptake ment of moderate to severe pain but causes less gastrointestinal inhibitors. Tapentadol has been implicated in the serotonin syndrome and should be used with caution in seizure disorders. Analgesic Activity the analgesic activity of mixed agonist-antagonists varies with Naloxone, nalmefene, and naltrexone are pure opioid recep- the individual drug but is somewhat less than that of strong tor antagonists that have few other effects at doses that produce full agonists like morphine. These drugs have greater nalbuphine afford greater analgesia than pentazocine, which is affinity for μ receptors than for other opioid receptors. Because naloxone has a short duration of action (1–2 h), Butorphanol, nalbuphine, and pentazocine are κ agonists, with weak multiple doses may be required in opioid analgesic overdose. Butorphanol may act as a partial ago- Nalmefene has a duration of action of 8–12 h. Genetic polymorphisms in certain hepatic enzymes involved decreases the craving for ethanol and is approved for adjunctive in drug metabolism are established to be responsible for varia- use in alcohol dependency programs. Unlike the older drugs, tions in analgesic response to (A) Buprenorphine two new antagonists, methylnaltrexone and alvimopan, do not (B) Codeine cross the blood-brain barrier. These agents block adverse effects (C) Fentanyl of strong opioids on peripheral μ receptors, including those (D) Methadone in the gastrointestinal tract responsible for constipation, with (E) Tramadol minimal effects on analgesic actions and without precipitating an abstinence syndrome. A young male patient is brought to the emer- gency department in an anxious and agitated state. A 63-year-old man is undergoing radiation include hyperventilation and hyperthermia. The most appropriate oral medication for his increasing pain (C) the patient has overdosed with an opioid is (D) the signs and symptoms are those of the opioid absti- (A) Buprenorphine nence syndrome (B) Codeine plus aspirin (E) these are early signs of toxicity due to contaminants in (C) Hydromorphone “street heroin (D) Pentazocine (E) Tramadol 7. Which drug will be most effective in alleviating the symp- toms experienced by this patient? It is possible that this patient will have to increase the dose (A) Buprenorphine of the analgesic as his condition progresses as a result of (B) Codeine developing tolerance. However, tolerance will not develop to (C) Methadone a significant extent with respect to (D) Naltrexone (A) Biliary smooth muscle (E) Tramadol (B) Emesis (C) Pupillary constriction 8. You are on your way to take an examination and you sud- (D) Pain-relieving action is not superior to that of codeine denly get an attack of diarrhea.
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With this combination lower doses of laevodopum are effective and there are fewer peripheral side effects cialis 20 mg online erectile dysfunction treatment electrical. Pharmacologic effects: the effects on bradykinesia and rigidity are more 127 rapid and complete than the effects on tremor purchase cialis 20 mg mastercard impotence diabetes. Adverse effects: the following defects may be observed: anorexia cheap 20mg cialis amex erectile dysfunction diabetes uk, nausea 20 mg cialis fast delivery erectile dysfunction facts and figures, and vomiting upon initial administration, cardiovascular effects, including tachycardia, arrhythmias, and orthostatic hypotension, mental disturbances, including delusions and hallucinations, a decrease in prolactin secretion, dyskinesia upon long- term administration. Madopar is a combination of laevodopum and benseresidum, which also blocks decarboxilation of laevodopum. Adverse effects of the combination are similar to those seen with high doses of laevodopum. It was found to improve Parkinsonian symptoms by stimulating the release of dopamine from dopaminergic nerve terminals in the nigrostriatum and delaying its reuptake. Midantanum enhances dopaminergic neurotransmission by glutamate receptors blocking which may involve increasing synthesis or release of dopamine or inhibition of reuptake of it. Midantanum may be more efficacious in Parkinsonism than the anticholinergic atropine derivatives but is less effective than laevodopum. Pharmacokinetics: Midantanum is well absorbed orally and is excreted unchanged in the urine. Mechanism of action: An ergot derivative, bromocriptinum mimics the action of dopaminum. Bromocriptinum is expensive but probably provides additional therapeutic benefit when added to laevodopum therapy. Pramipexolum and ropinirolum are recently introduced dopamine receptor agonists; they are not ergot derivatives. These drugs are as effective as bromocriptinum and do not cause side effects typically associated with the use of ergots. Dyskinesias, postural hypotension, lassitude, sleepiness, and fatigue have been reported. Anticholinergic agents decrease the excitatory actions of cholinergic neurons on cells in the striatum by blocking muscarinic receptors. Pharmacologic effects: Drugs such as cyclodolum, troparinum, brinerdinum may improve the tremor and rigidity of Parkinsonism but they have little effect on bradykinesia. They are used adjunctively in Parkinsonism; they also alleviate reversible extrapyramidal symptoms caused by antipsychotic drugs. Therapeutic uses: While not as effective as laevodopum or bromocriptinum, anticholinergic agents may have an additive therapeutic effect at any stage of the disease when taken concurrently. Adverse effects such as mental confusion and hallucinations due to central muscarinic toxicity, can occur as can peripheral atropine-like toxicity (e. Therapeutic uses: the drug is used concurrently with laevodopum, it also prevents catabolism of dopaminum in the brain. There is a combined drug Stalevo which consists of laevodopum, carbidopum, entacaponum (an analogue of tolcaponum). Narcotic analgesics Analgesia provides relief of pain without loss of consciousness, in contrast to anesthesia. The chief action of opiates and similar synthetic compounds is to impair the normal sensory awareness-and response to tissue injury. Opium is dry juice of Papaver somniferum which opiates is derived from the poppy plant. The exudate of the seed capsule contains alkaloids morphin, codein, thebaine, and papaverine. The term opioid or narcotic analgesics refers to both naturally occurring opiates and synthetic drugs with similar actions. Certain opioid receptors are located on primary afferents and spinal cord pain transmission neurons (ascending pathways) and on neurons in the midbrain and medulla (descending pathways) that function in pain modulation. Other opioid receptors that may be involved in altering reactivity to pain are located on 130 neurons in the basal ganglia, the hypothalamus, the limbic structures, and the cerebral cortex. Mu () and delta () receptors: Activation of mu and delta receptors contributes to analgesia at both spinal and supraspinal levels, to respiratory depression, and to physical dependence which can result from chronic use of some opioid analgesics. Kappa () receptors: Kappa receptor activation contributes to spinal analgesia and plays a role in sedative effects of opioid drugs. Opioid receptors are thought to be activated by endogenous peptides under physiologic conditions. They appear to modulate transmission at many sites in the brain and spinal cord and in primary afferents, they have been implicated in hormonal fluctuations, thermoregulation, mediation of stress and anxiety, production of analgesia, maintain homeostasis. Ionic mechanisms: Opioid analgesics inhibit synaptic activity, partly through direct activation of opioid receptors and partly through release of the endogenous opiopeptins, which are themselves inhibitory to neurons. All three major opioid receptors are coupled to their effectors by G proteins and they activate phospholipase C or inhibit adenylylcyclase. At the presynaptic level, opioid receptor 2+ activation closes voltage-gated Ca ion channels to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Presynaptic actions result in the inhibition of release of multiple neuro-transmitters, including acetylcholine, noradrenalin, serotonin, glutamate, and substance P. Narcotic analgesics may be classified as agonists (receptor activators), partial agonists (activator of concrete receptors) antagonists (receptor blockers), or mixed agonist-antagonists. Morphine hydrochloride is a derivative of the phenanthrene series of opium alkaloids. The analgesic effect is greater when the drug is administered intramuscularly or intravenously, rather than orally.