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Timothy Jay quantifies this in “A Study of Cursing in American Films 1939–89” (1992 generic kaletra 250mg on line medications used to treat migraines, 222–34) purchase 250mg kaletra with visa 7 medications that cause incontinence, discussed further below purchase 250 mg kaletra fast delivery medications and mothers milk 2014. Even by 1913 there was in existence a National Board of Review for Motion Pictures order kaletra 250mg with amex medicine for sore throat, which in its “Definition of Censorship” mentioned the medium’s potential for “political, social, religious propaganda, for muckraking. This educational and didactic assumption has remained ingrained: “Movies do more than simply show us how to dress, how to look, or what to buy,” runs the introduction to a recent collection of essays on Movies and American Society: “They teach us how to think about race, gender, class, ethnicity and politics” (Ross 2002, 1). The collection is illuminating in its focus on particular content-themes, such as the Cold War, the Vietnam War, race relations, femi nism, and other political issues. The history of the American film industry is very much bound up with the struggle between freedom of expression and prohibitions over the treatment of most of the topics just listed. In the early years the two principal antagonists, namely the Hollywood produc ers and their censors and critics, were capitalists and moralists, all unelected. As early as 1909 the mayor of New York, inundated by complaints of “indecency,” closed down the movie theatres. Griffith’s the Birth of a Nation, the Supreme Court ruled that the motion picture industry was “business pure and simple,” and therefore not protected by the First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of speech. Clarence Darrow commented: “It is an anomaly in a free country to guarantee freedom to speak, to publish, or to put anything upon the stage, and to single out the moving pictures as subject for censorship” (Darrow and Vittum 1918, 188). Between 1915 and 1922 more direct control was passed to the National Board of Cen sorship, but producers felt sufficiently free to release films with salacious titles like A Shock ing Night, Luring Lips, Virgin Paradise, and the Truant Husband, together with increasingly explicit love scenes. There were calls for tighter controls and for federal intervention to “rescue the motion pictures from the devil and 500 unchristian Jews” (Hamilton 1990, 58). This ugly religious and ethnic edge was given to the conflict since many of the studio own ers were Jewish and most of the moralists were Catholic. In 1922, in response to the industry’s request for an outsider to head the newly created Motion Picture Producers and Distribu tors of America (M. What became known as the Hays Office issued guidelines, which originally focused on content. With the arrival of sound, these perforce included the matter of “bad language,” another area of contention. The Production Code In March 1930, in response to waves of protests and threatened boycotts, the Hollywood producers negotiated a new form of censorship with one their most powerful and deter mined opponents, the Catholic owner and publisher of Motion Picture Herald, Martin Quigley. This resulted in a detailed Motion Picture Production Code, first known as the Hays Code, but actually drawn up by Quigley and Daniel J. The most notorious instances were Marlene Dietrich in the Blue Angel (1930) and Blonde Venus (1932), Joan Crawford in Possessed (1931), Jean Harlow in Red Dust (1930), and Mae West in She Done Him Wrong and I’m No Angel (both 1933). Representing the most insidious and subversive threat to the restrictions of the Code, “Mae West made any attempt at censorship look foolish [since] she could turn the most innocent-sounding dialogue in a script into blatant sexual innuendo” (Ross 2002, 109). Her most famous line is still: “Is that a gun in your pocket or are you just pleased to see me Within Hollywood itself, always both glamorous and suspect, a double standard ob tained, as the magazine Confidential showed. Yet the film moguls imposed a rigid code of “family decency,” summed up in this lecture from Louis B. Mayer to Hedy Lamarr: “We have an obligation to the audience—millions of families. Mayer’s oscilla tions of register from the formal make love and fornicate to the coarse screw and tits to the absurd euphemism chest reveal his essential hypocrisy. Faced with already declining audiences as a result of the Depression, the Hollywood producers agreed to a system of “prior restraint” or censorship in advance. The Hays Office appointed Joseph Breen, a Catholic journalist to head the Production Code Office, which would approve every film before distribution. Gangster films, which had achieved notable successes with Little Caesar (1930), the Public Enemy (1931), and Scarface (1932), were dropped (at a time when the Mafia was on the rise). Within a few months commentators on the industry noted that “the obscenity that was found in four or five pictures before last June has disappeared. Further more, in response to demands, the industry withdrew from circulation a number of films deemed to be “immoral,” including Ernest Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms (1932) and the adaptation of William Faulkner’s Sanctuary, namely the Story of Temple Drake (1933). Up to this point the principal site of struggle had been sex, that is to say, heterosexual sex, since the taboo on “perversion” was maintained. Studies such as the Lavender Screen (1993) and Queer Cinema (2004) explore what was going on behind the facade. With the outbreak of war, communications between the White House and Hollywood focused on how filmmakers might contribute to the propaganda potential of the war effort. This last, actually shot in Chinatown in Los Angeles, has a scene with a police detective dragging off a spy suspect, saying “Take that for Pearl Harbor, you slant eyed. Roosevelt’s representative, Lowell Mellet, had a team of ana lysts who interpreted the film as “an invitation to a witch-hunt” (Hamilton 1990, 218). In Objective Burma (where there were no actual American troops) a soldier surveys the remains of a village overrun by the Japanese and exclaims: “This was done in cold blood by people who claim to be civilized. The involvement of Hollywood in the Vietnam War was, of course, radically different. During the war the Green Berets (1968), the result of a proposal by John Wayne to President Lyndon B. However, after the war ended in 1975, a number of major antiwar films appeared frankly critical of America’s role, most notably Apocalypse Now (1979), Platoon (1986, although Oliver Stone actually wrote the script in 1976), and Stanley Kubrick’s Full Metal Jacket (1987). The erosion of the Production Code was already being initiated by television, which had started transmission in 1939 and was to expand to twelve channels by 1952. With the consequent decline in cinema audi ences, producers saw their opportunity to make films that were “alternative,” “adult” enter tainment. However, “When classification started it was quickly found that the most commercially attractive rating was the ‘X’” (Trevelyan 1973, 195). Although the first attracted criticisms of excessive violence, both scripts were almost entirely “clean.

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Deveiopment and Course Bipolar and related disorder due to cheap kaletra 250mg visa medications lisinopril another medical condition usually has its onset acutely or subacutely within the first weeks or month of the onset of the associated medical con­ dition buy generic kaletra 250mg medications causing pancreatitis. However kaletra 250mg lowest price alternative medicine, this is not always the case trusted kaletra 250mg medications for ptsd, as a worsening or later relapse of the associ­ ated medical condition may precede the onset of the manic or hypomanie syndrome. The clinician must make a clinical judgment in these situations about whether the medical con­ dition is causative, based on temporal sequence as well as plausibility of a causal relation­ ship. Finally, the condition may remit before or just after the medical condition remits, particularly wh^n treatment of the manic/hypomanie symptoms is effective. Culture-Related Diagnostic Issues Culture-related differences, to the extent that there is any evidence, pertain to those asso­ ciated with the medical condition. Gender-Related Diagnostic Issues Gender differences pertain to those associated with the medical condition. Diagnostic Markers Diagnostic markers pertain to those associated with the medical condition. Functional Consequences of Bipolar and Related Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition Functional consequences of the bipolar symptoms may exacerbate impairments associ­ ated with the medical condition and may incur worse outcomes due to interference with medical treatment. However, it is also suggested, but not established, that mood syndromes, including de­ pressive and manic/hypomanie ones, may be episodic. It is important to differentiate symptoms of mania from excited or hypervigilant delirious symptoms; from excited cata­ tonic symptoms; and from agitation related to acute anxiety states. An important differential diag­ nostic observation is that the other medical condition may be treated with medications. In these cases, clinical judgment using all of the evidence in hand is the best way to try to separate the most likely and/or the most important of two etiological factors. The differential di­ agnosis of the associated medical conditions is relevant but largely beyond the scope of the present manual. Comorbidity Conditions comorbid with bipolar and related disorder due to another medical condition are those associated with the medical conditions of etiological relevance. The other specified bipolar and related disorder category is used in situations in which the clinician chooses to communicate the specific reason that the presentation does not meet the cri­ teria for any specific bipolar and related disorder. This is done by recording “other speci­ fied bipolar and related disorder” followed by the specific reason. Short-duration hypomanie episodes (2-3 days) and major depressive episodes: A lifetime history of one or more major depressive episodes in individuals whose presenta­ tion has never met full criteria for a manic or hypomanie episode but who have experienced two or more episodes of short-duration hypomania that meet the full symptomatic criteria for a hypomanie episode but that only last for 2-3 days. The episodes of hypomanie symp­ toms do not overlap in time with the major depressive episodes, so the disturbance does not meet criteria for major depressive episode, with mixed features. Hypomanie episodes with insufficient symptoms and major depressive epi­ sodes: A lifetime history of one or more major depressive episodes in individuals whose presentation has never met full criteria for a manic or hypomanie episode but who have experienced one or more episodes of hypomania that do not meet full symp­ tomatic criteria. The episodes of hypomanie symptoms do not overlap in time with the major depressive episodes, so the disturbance does not meet criteria for major depressive episode, with mixed features. Hypomanie episode without prior major depressive episode: One or more hypo manic episodes in an individual whose presentation has never met full criteria for a ma­ jor depressive episode or a manic episode. If this occurs in an individual with an established diagnosis of persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), both diagnoses can be concurrently applied during the periods when the full criteria for a hypomanie episode are met. Short-duration eyelothymia (less than 24 months): Multiple episodes of hypomanie symptoms that do not meet criteria for a hypomanie episode and multiple episodes of de­ pressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for a major depressive episode that persist over a period of less than 24 months (less than 12 months for children or adolescents) in an individual whose presentation has never met full criteria for a major depressive, manic, or hypomanie episode and does not meet criteria for any psychotic disorder. Dur­ ing the course of the disorder, the hypomanie or depressive symptoms are present for more days than not, the individual has not been without symptoms for more than 2 months at a time, and the symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment. Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorder V 296. The unspec­ ified bipolar and related disorder category is used in situations in which the clinician choos­ es not to specify the reason that the criteria are not met for a specific bipolar and related disorder, and includes presentations in which there is insufficient information to make a more specific diagnosis. Specifiers for Bipolar and Related Disorders Specify if: With anxious distress: the presence of at least two of the following symptoms during the majority of days of the current or most recent episode of mania, hypomania, or de­ pression: 1. Note: Anxious distress has been noted as a prominent feature of both bipolar and major depressive disorder in both primary care and specialty mental health set­ tings. High levels of anxiety have been associated with higher suicide risk, longer duration of illness, and greater likelihood of treatment nonresponse. Full criteria are met for a manic episode or hypomanie episode, and at least three of the following symptoms are present during the majority of days of the current or most recent episode of mania or hypomania: 1. Prominent dysphoria or depressed mood as indicated by either subjective report. Diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities (as indicated by either subjective account or observation made by others). Psychomotor retardation nearly every day (observable by others; not merely subjective feelings of being slowed down). Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (not merely self-reproach or guilt about being sick). Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ide­ ation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for com­ mitting suicide. For individuals whose symptoms meet full episode criteria for both mania and depression simultaneously, the diagnosis should be manic episode, with mixed features, due to the marked impairment and clinical severity of full mania. Full criteria are met for a major depressive episode, and at least three of the fol­ lowing manic/hypomanic symptoms are present during the majority of days of the current or most recent episode of depression: 1. Increase in energy or goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually). Mixed symptoms are observable by others and represent a change from the person’s usual behavior.

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Age is also a strong pre­ dictor of seasonality buy kaletra 250 mg amex symptoms of high blood pressure, with younger persons at higher risk for winter depressive epi­ sodes order kaletra 250 mg with amex symptoms pneumonia. Specify if: In partial remission: Symptoms of the immediately previous manic discount 250mg kaletra mastercard medicine 223, hypomanie purchase kaletra 250 mg overnight delivery treatment of hemorrhoids, or depressive episode are present, but full criteria are not met, or there is a period lasting less than 2 months without any significant symptoms of a manic, hypomanie, or major depressive episode following the end of such an episode. Specify current severity: Severity is based on the number of criterion symptoms, the severity of those symptoms, and the degree of functional disability. Mild: Few, if any, symptoms in excess of those required to meet the diagnostic criteria are present, the intensity of the symptoms is distressing but manageable, and the symptoms result in minor impairment in social or occupational functioning. Moderate: the number of symptoms, intensity of symptoms, and/or functional impair­ ment are between those specified for “mild”and “severe. In order to address concerns about the potential for the overdiagnosis of and treatment for bipolar disorder in children, a new diagnosis, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, referring to the presentation of children with persistent irritability and frequent episodes of extreme behavioral dyscontrol, is added to the depressive disorders for children up to 12 years of age. Its placement in this chapter reflects the finding that children with this symptom pattern typically develop unipolar depressive disorders or anxiety disorders, rather than bipolar disorders, as they mature into adolescence and adulthood. Major depressive disorder represents the classic condition in this group of disorders. A diagnosis based on a single episode is possible, although the disorder is a recurrent one in the majority of cases. Careful consid­ eration is given to the delineation of normal sadness and grief from a major depressive ep­ isode. Bereavement may induce great suffering, but it does not typically induce an episode of major depressive disorder. When they do occur together, the depressive symptoms and functional impairment tend to be more severe and the prognosis is worse compared with bereavement that is not accompanied by major depressive disorder. Bereavement-related depression tends to occur in persons with other vulnerabilities to depressive disorders, and recovery may be facilitated by antidepressant treatment. A more chronic form of depression, persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), can be diagnosed when the mood disturbance continues for at least 2 years in adults or 1 year in children. Almost 20 years of additional of research on this condition has confirmed a specific and treatment-responsive form of depressive disorder that begins sometime following ovulation and remits within a few days of menses and has a marked impact on functioning. A large number of substances of abuse, some prescribed medications, and several medical conditions can be associated with depression-like phenomena. This fact is recog­ nized in the diagnoses of substance/medication-induced depressive disorder and depres­ sive disorder due to another medical condition. The mood between temper outbursts is persistently irritable or angry most of the day, nearly every day, and is observable by others. Throughout that time, the indi­ vidual has not had a period lasting 3 or more consecutive months without all of the symptoms in Criteria A-D. The diagnosis should not be made for the first time before age 6 years or after age 18 years. There has never been a distinct period lasting more than 1 day during which the full symptom criteria, except duration, for a manic or hypomanie episode have been met. Note: Developmentally appropriate mood elevation, such as occurs in the context of a highly positive event or its anticipation, should not be considered as a symptom of ma­ nia or hypomania. The behaviors do not occur exclusively during an episode of major depressive disorder and are not better explained by another mental disorder. Note: this diagnosis cannot coexist with oppositional defiant disorder, intermittent ex­ plosive disorder, or bipolar disorder, though it can coexist with others, including major depressive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and substance use disorders. Individuals whose symptoms meet criteria for both disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and oppositional defiant disorder should only be given the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. If an individual has ever experi­ enced a manic or hypomanie episode, the diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder should not be assigned. The symptoms are not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or to an­ other medical or neurological condition. Diagnostic Features the core feature of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is chronic, severe persistent ir ritabihty. This severe irritability has two prominent clinical manifestations, the first of which is frequent temper outbursts. These outbursts typically occur in response to frus­ tration and can be verbal or behavioral (the latter in the form of aggression against prop­ erty, self, or others). The second manifestation of severe irritability consists of chronic, persistently irritable or angry mood that is present between the severe temper outbursts. The clinical presentation of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder must be carefully distinguished from presentations of other, related conditions, particularly pediatric bi­ polar disorder. During the latter decades of the 20th century, this contention by researchers that severe, nonepisodic irritability is a manifestation of pediatric mania coincided with an up­ surge in the rates at which clinicians assigned the diagnosis of bipolar disorder to their pediatric patients. This sharp increase in rates appears to be attributable to clinicians com­ bining at least two clinical presentations into a single category. That is, both classic, epi­ sodic presentations of mania and non-episodic presentations of severe irritability have been labeled as bipolar disorder in children. Prevalence Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is common among children presenting to pedi­ atric mental health clinics. Based on rates of chronic and severe persistent irritability, which is the core feature of the disorder, the overall 6-month to 1-year period-prevalence of disruptive mood dys­ regulation disorder among children and adolescents probably falls in the 2%-5% range. However, rates are expected to be higher in males and school-age children than in females and adolescents. Development and Course the onset of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder must be before age 10 years, and the diagnosis should not be applied to children with a developmental age of less than 6 years. Because the symptoms of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder are likely to change as children mature, use of the diagnosis should be restricted to age groups similar to those in which validity has been established (7-18 years).

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The inability to 250 mg kaletra visa medicine 1975 lyrics perceive a normal range of many rules and norms that are imposed colors buy 250mg kaletra fast delivery treatment eczema, which may be total or partial cheap kaletra 250 mg overnight delivery in treatment online. This cultural pattern is determined color blindness an individual perceives only by examining data across cultures kaletra 250mg visa medicine quinidine. In partial data collectivism is the opposite of individ color blindness an individual can lack the ualism. Individuals in collectivist cultures capacity to distinguish red, blue, or green defne themselves as members of groups, colors, depending on which type of photo give priority to group goals, behave mostly receptors are absent form her/his eyes. Most according to group norms, and do not leave color blindness is inherited and is sex linked their groups even when they are dissatisfed but it may also be caused by trauma or dis with them. Inability to distinguish between red High levels of collectivism are found in and green is the most common form of color rural, homogeneous, isolated cultures with blindness. The vary with angle, illumination, movement, and corpus callosum (the largest white matter other variables. Thus when we see a red ball, structure in the human brain) is situated ven we perceive it as being the same color all over, tral to the cortex, connects the right and left although the actual light refected from it will hemispheres, and contains about 250 million vary over its surface. The anterior commissure is a neu ral pathway connecting the cerebral hemi color mixing spheres across the middle line, at the level of 1. The posterior commissure crosses more other colors, as in mixing paint colors the midline at the upper end of the cerebral for a house. Red, blue, and yellow or green, which can commissurotomy be mixed to obtain white. Commis of view of the human visual system, all four surotomy of the corpus callosum (calloso colors are primary as they correspond to the tomy) results in the so-called split-brain wavelengths of particular visual receptors. The ability to distinguish among lights of refractory types of epilepsy, but also to treat various wavelengths. Confnement to a mental institution to distinguish among lights of various wave usually without the consent of the person in lengths and the existence of primary colors, volved. In most states, involuntary commit complementary colors, and afterimages; the ment is possible only if a person presents a laws of color mixing; and different kinds of clear danger to herself/himself or to others. A cognitive or emotional state of inten Helmholtz, Hering, Ladd-Franklin, Granit, tion to follow a course of action regardless trichromatic, and opponent process theories. An abnormal state of unconsciousness resources in a person, group, idea, or activity marked by complete or nearly complete unre such that withdrawal entails costs and there sponsiveness to stimuli including the absence fore the investment is maintained. Physical or chemical brain trauma, interruption of blood fow or oxygen common fate to the brain, diabetes, hydroencephalitis, and n. A Gestalt principle that notes that objects brain tumors are the most common causes. In anatomy it is used to refer to the nerve path common in-group identity model ways crossing from one side to the other in n. A theoretical model of group interventions the brain (and also the spinal cord) as well as designed to reduce prejudice against an out to the site or point where two parts join, for group by bringing about a recategorization to example, in the lips. The commons dilemma, also known as social psychology of language and communi the tragedy of the commons, refers to the cation, its propositions receiving much empir confict of serving the interests of the self or ical support across an array of cultures and the interests of the common good. The theory, invoked within many individual chooses to serve the interests of disciplines, has also led to a range of satellite the self over those of the common good, the theories, including the intergroup model of outcome will be detrimental to everyone. The sum of the squared factor loadings of the communication game theory variable for all factors in the factor analysis, n. The transference of understanding from one possible strategy or action they can take one individual to another or the transfer of and whose outcome depends on the actions data from one source to another in any of a of the other party(ies). Different commu very large number of natural and artifcial nication strategies are analyzed; possible ways. The message or actual data being outcomes are delineated on the basis of ei transferred in an act of communication. It is concerned with how and on person-environment interactions usually why people reduce and magnify communi at the level of the community and is aimed at cative differences among themselves – as improving the general quality of life within a well as the social consequences of so doing. Major accommodation strategies include converging toward, or diverging away from, comorbidity another. The simultaneous presence of more than verbal and nonverbal means: via language one disease or disorder in the same person. The increased likelihood of death due to rate, changing patterns of smiling, pitch, and the presence of additional diseases or disor gestures, and others. Generally, people con ders along with one considered the primary verge toward those whom they like or respect disease or disorder. Love in which there are intimacy and believe others to be rather than to where they commitment but no passion in Robert objectively are. Alternative forms of a test which have sim who directly beneft from the economic ilar content but whose psychometric qualities change compensate those who are harmed by have not been demonstrated. A term in psychology that can be under psychology whose area of research is the psy stood as both an objective outcome and a chological similarities between species of subjective or phenomenological experi animals. In either sense, developing compe to understand a particular species as well as tence can be defned as the ongoing process to provide a comparison for humans or some of acquiring and consolidating a set of skills other group of animals. The branch of psychology concerned with domains of sport, industry, academics, and the similarities and differences in the minds the arts. However, competence is relevant to of different species of animals including a much wider array of domains and activities, the human species. Ethology, sociobiology, particularly with regard to development, for psychobiology, and behavioral genetics are example, learning to ride a bike or tie one’s closely related felds. All of these compatibility principle activities and more fall under the auspices of n. That is, researchers, play that combines variable level with control such as Robert White, have found that the effort. Also called proximity compatibility experience of feeling competent or effective principle.

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