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In the own-criteria group (n = 12) discount viagra plus 400 mg otc impotence kidney disease, subjects were asked to viagra plus 400 mg lowest price erectile dysfunction protocol + 60 days Assess your standing among Cornell students for the characteristic using a percentile ranking generic viagra plus 400mg line causes of erectile dysfunction in your 20s. But before doing that cheap viagra plus 400mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction pills natural, we want you to tell us the specific evidence you are thinking of when you evaluate yourself. What specific abilities, habits, skills and behaviors are you considering when you arrive at a percentile score. What was the evidence that prompts you to call yourself more or lessX than the typical Cornell student. They were presented with the characteristic “Health Conscious” and were told that an individual might list “Avoids red meat,” “Goes to aerobics,” “Doesn’t smoke,” and “Goes to doctor regularly. After listing their evidence, subjects provided a new estimate of their percentile rankings “considering only the evidence you provided – that is, give us your percentile score considering how much you and other Cornell students display the specific criteria or evidence you just cited above. Each subject in the yoked-criteria condition (n = 12) based his or her second set of estimates on the criteria generated by a particular subject in the own-criteria group. The language used by the own-criteria subjects underwent minimal changes for the purpose of removing specifics of place and time. In the yoked group, subjects were told that For each characteristic, we have listed the specific criteria we want you to consider when evaluating yourself. We want you to evaluate yourself among Cornell students using only these criteria, no matter how well they fit your usual conception of the trait in question. Results We predicted that self-evaluations would remain the same between pretest and posttest for the control and own criteria groups, but would dramatically decrease in the yoked-criteria condition. In order to test this prediction, we collapsed self-evaluations across the three domains studied and subjected those evaluations to a 3 (criteria condition: own, yoked, control) 2 (pretest vs. This analysis revealed the expected Criteria Condition Test interaction, F (2, 33) = 7. Indeed, similar significant interactions were observed for two of the individual domains we examined: athletics, F (2, 33) = 5. Of eight possible pretest–posttest comparisons, only one revealed a statistically significant change, which was a small rise in ratings of athletic skill in the control condition (fromM = 50. Within the yoked-criteria group, however, subjects consistently lowered their self-evaluations from pretest to posttest. If we look at responses collapsed across domain, we find that percentile estimates went fromM of 53. When considering activity in extracurricular programs, subjects did lower their assessments an average of 9. Mean Percentile Rankings as a Function of Using Own versus Someone Else’s (Yoked) Criteria Note: n = 12 per condition. The studies described here confirmed one assertion made by proponents of this viewpoint: In our studies, college students (who we take to be a nondepressed population) provided self-assessments that appear to be self-serving and biased. However, the analysis of the above average effect presented here throws its status as conclusive evidence of unrealistic bias into doubt. It may be that the assessments our subjects provided were hopelessly distorted (for, indeed, how can almost everyone be above average), but it might also be the case that our subjects were largely accurate in the assessments they provided. More specifically, after considering and presumably defining ambiguous traits, subjects may have subsequently provided percentile rankings that were accurate given their own idiosyncratic definitions. Buttressing the notion that people may be accurate within their own peculiar definitions is the fact that when considering unambiguous traits, people exhibited hardly any self-serving pattern whatsoever. That is, once the criteria of judgment are clearly established, people have the ability to assess their own standing in relation to their peers accurately. Under this analysis, the above average effect by itself fails to serve as clear evidence of bias and distortion in social judgment. In effect, when people consider their own definition, and perhaps the one most relevant to the daily tasks they face, they may be largely accurate. However, even if this is the case, we can still conjecture that the above average effect, and the self-serving use of trait ambiguity, may have alarming social costs. These costs occur when one individual considers his or her peculiar definition as the only one worthy of consideration and fails to recognize when other plausible definitions are relevant. One cost may occur when an individual believes that his or her definition of ability is the only one relevant to achievement outcomes. Specifically, when people attempt to predict how well they will perform in comparison to their peers on some common achievement metric. For example, consider a company that has three vice presidents – one from sales, one from accounting, and one from engineering – who are being considered for promotion to president. Each considers him or herself to be an outstanding manager among his or her peers because he or she only considers a self-serving definition of “managerial skill. The vice president from accounting can cite her ability to keep track of all details of a project. The vice president from engineering can cite her ability to coordinate different individuals into an organized project. If each of these people only considers one peculiar definition of leadership ability when estimating the likelihood of receiving the promotion, there will clearly be some overconfidence and error. From this example, it is also apparent that self-serving definitions of ability can also be a springboard for social disharmony. For another example, consider a group of professors awaiting word on a merit raise in their salary.
It is associated with signi cant mortality (15–20%) and permanent neurodevelopmental disability (25%) discount 400 mg viagra plus with visa wellbutrin xl impotence. Hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy this is the neurological consequence of perinatal asphyxia due to discount 400mg viagra plus visa erectile dysfunction causes medications lack of oxygen or perfusion to generic viagra plus 400 mg free shipping erectile dysfunction red 7 the foetus generic 400mg viagra plus with visa xalatan erectile dysfunction. The term ‘neonatal depression’ is preferred to describe the baby who emerges limp, cyanosed, with poor heart rate or respiratory effort. In term infants, maternal diabetes and hypertension/toxaemia are also risk factors. Common patterns are: • Focal or multifocal cortical necrosis due to loss of perfusion in one or more vascular territories. Results in cystic encephalomalacia, ulegyria (loss of sulcal depth), or porencephaly depending on the territory, and a pyramidal pattern cerebral palsy. Results particularly in parasagittal and parietoccipital white matter loss and auditory, visuospatial and language de cits. Prolonged partial asphyxia causes diffuse cortical necrosis, epilepsy, and learning disability. Acute total asphyxia may spare cortex but cause thalamic, basal ganglia and brainstem injury, and dyskinetic cerebral palsy. Therapeutic hypothermia is achieved by either selective head, or total body cooling. Metabolic encephalopathies A large number of metabolic, toxic, infectious, and genetic abnormalities may cause a neonatal encephalopathy. The placenta usually clears toxic metabolites so the presentation may be delayed from hours to weeks post-partum (cf. These complications of pregnancy are of unknown (probably heterogeneous) aetiology; however, some of the involved children later manifest fatty acid oxidation disorders. Management of the newborn with a suspected metabolic encephalopathy • Manage cardiorespiratory depression (ventilate). Treat hyperammonaemia if a urea cycle defect suspected with Na benzoate (250 mg/kg load followed by 250 mg/kg/24 h infusion) or arginine 0. Metabolic acidosis with high anion gap Normal lactate Elevated lactate Organic academia Organic acids Normal Abnormal Hypoglycaemia Normoglycaemia Dicarboxylic aciduria Propionic–succinic pathway abnormality Glycogen storage Respiratory chain defect Fatty acid oxidation defect disease type 1; fructose. Risk factors include non-vertex presentation, large foetal head size, primiparous, or older multiparous mother, instrumental delivery or rapid/ prolonged labour. It is usually clinically silent, but may present with a catastrophic syndrome of rapid neurological deterioration with coma, accid tone, tonic postur ing, absence of spontaneous movements or a subacute deterioration in alertness and spontaneous movement over hours to days. Embolic stroke • Placental via persistent foetal circulation allowing right to left shunting (note placental condition). Indicates limited in utero movement, which in turn may re ect: • Primary neurological cause of weakness, either central or neuromuscular in origin (for further assessment, see b p. Scoliosis and pooling of secretions with aspiration makes a myopathy (particularly nemaline rod) likely. Once raised pressure has been excluded the assessment is as for other children: primary headaches, especially migraine and tension type headache are the most common (see b p. Shunt complications In evaluation of possible shunt malfunction a good history is at least as valuable as neuroimaging data. Suspected blockage/fracture/other loss of function • Up to 40% in the rst year; 5–10% per year afterwards. Relationship of headaches to posture particularly helpful (raised pressure headache due to shunt blockage typically worse after period of lying down. Over-drainage • Lethargy: in contrast to raised pressure headache, headache due to over-drainage (‘low pressure headache’) is initially worse on sitting or standing up, improved by lying down. If related to recent shunt revision then the shunt valve needs to be changed (to one with an increased opening pressure). A shunt with a programmable valve (whose opening pressure can be adjusted remotely) is particularly valuable. Other shunt complications Haemorrhage, abdominal pseudo-cysts, viscus penetration, shunt migration. Seizures in the context of neurosurgical disease • Disordered sodium homeostasis is common: • dilutional hyponatraemia (see b p. A wide range of neurological symptoms and signs can occur in the context of paediatric oncology. It is always tempting to blame the chemotherapy, but consider also: • Metabolic derangements. Drug-induced encephalopathy Methotrexate neurotoxicity • Relatively common complication of intrathecal or systemic methotrexate treatment. Note that in this case changes are relatively asymmetric and not con ned to occipital cortex (c. Paraesthesia • Pressure palsy mononeuropathy causing immobility in a debilitated child. The characteristic distribution of the sensory disturbance and (if relevant) the motor de cit corresponding to the involved nerve should be sought (see b p. Anticoagulate with low molecular weight heparin once a secondary haemorrhage into a venous infarct has been excluded. Oto-toxicity Carboplatin, cisplatin; cytosine arabinoside (with vestibular involvement). Peripheral neuropathy • Vincristine, cisplatin, cytosine arabinoside • Neurotoxicity with vincristine is dose-related and cumulative. A poor nutritional state may exacerbate the severity: • numbness and tingling are a common early sign; • muscle cramps; • mild symptoms (loss of ankle re exes, slapping gait) are common even at conventional dosages; • reduction in dose of vincristine may be necessary if symptoms are severe, symptoms and signs are slowly reversible on discontinuation of the drug.
Animal intelligence: An experimental study of the associative processes in animals buy 400mg viagra plus with mastercard erectile dysfunction doctor delhi. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes purchase viagra plus 400 mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction treatment homeopathy, 10(2) buy generic viagra plus 400 mg on line buy erectile dysfunction injections, 138–148; Watanabe 400mg viagra plus fast delivery erectile dysfunction zinc deficiency, S. Skinner were behaviorists who believed that all learning could be explained by the processes of conditioning—that is, that associations, and associations alone, influence learning. Thus, although classical and operant conditioning play a key role in learning, they constitute only a part of the total picture. One type of learning that is not determined only by conditioning occurs when we suddenly find the solution to a problem, as if the idea just popped into our head. The German psychologist  Wolfgang Kohler (1925) carefully observed what happened when he presented chimpanzees with a problem that was not easy for them to solve, such as placing food in an area that was too high in the cage to be reached. He found that the chimps first engaged in trial-and-error attempts at solving the problem, but when these failed they seemed to stop and contemplate for a while. Then, after this period of contemplation, they would suddenly seem to know how to solve the problem, for instance by using a stick to knock the food down or by standing on a chair to reach it. Kohler argued that it was this flash of insight, not the prior trial-and-error approaches, which were so important for conditioning theories, that allowed the animals to solve the problem. The second group never received any reward, and the third group received a reward, but only beginning on the 11th day of the experimental period. As you might expect when considering the principles of conditioning, the rats in the first group quickly learned to negotiate the maze, while the rats of the second group seemed to wander aimlessly through it. The rats in the third group, however, although they wandered aimlessly for the first 10 days, quickly learned to navigate to the end of the maze as soon as they received food on day 11. By the next day, the rats in the third group had caught up in their learning to the rats that had been rewarded from the beginning. It was clear to Tolman that the rats that had been allowed to experience the maze, even without any reinforcement, had nevertheless learned something, and Tolman called this latent learning. Latent learning refers to learning that is not reinforced and not demonstrated until there is motivation to do so. Tolman argued that the rats had formed a “cognitive map” of the maze but did not demonstrate this knowledge until they received reinforcement. Observational Learning: Learning by Watching the idea of latent learning suggests that animals, and people, may learn simply by experiencing or watching. In all three conditions, the model violently punched the clown, kicked the doll, sat on it, and hit it with a hammer. Video Clip: Bandura Discussing Clips From His Modeling Studies Take a moment to see how Albert Bandura explains his research into the modeling of aggression in children. The researchers first let the children view one of the three types of modeling, and then let them play in a room in which there were some really fun toys. To create some frustration in the children, Bandura let the children play with the fun toys for only a couple of minutes before taking them away. If you guessed that most of the children imitated the model, you would be correct. Regardless of which type of modeling the children had seen, and regardless of the sex of the model or the child, the children who had seen the model behaved aggressively—just as the model had done. Bandura and his colleagues had demonstrated that these children had learned new behaviors, simply by observing and imitating others. Observational learning is useful for animals and for people because it allows us to learn without having to actually engage in what might be a risky behavior. Monkeys that see other monkeys respond with fear to the sight of a snake learn to fear the snake themselves, even if they have  been raised in a laboratory and have never actually seen a snake (Cook & Mineka, 1990). As Bandura put it, the prospects for [human] survival would be slim indeed if one could learn only by suffering the consequences of trial and error. The more costly and hazardous the possible mistakes, the heavier is the reliance on  observational learning from competent learners. These children are not only the victims of aggression, but they also see it happening to their parents and siblings. Because children learn how to be parents in large part by modeling the actions of their own parents, it is no surprise that there is a strong correlation between family violence in childhood and violence as an adult. Children who witness their parents being violent or who are themselves abused are more likely as adults to inflict abuse on intimate partners or their children, and to be victims of intimate violence (Heyman & Slep,  2002). In turn, their children are more likely to interact violently with each other and to  aggress against their parents (Patterson, Dishion, & Bank, 1984). Research Focus: the Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggression the average American child watches more than 4 hours of television every day, and 2 out of 3 of the programs they watch contain aggression. It has been estimated that by the age of 12, the average American child has seen more than 8,000 murders and 100,000 acts of violence. At the same time, children are also exposed to violence in movies, video games, and virtual reality games, as well as in music videos that include violent lyrics and imagery (The Henry J. It might not surprise you to hear that these exposures to violence have an effect on aggressive behavior. The evidence is impressive and clear: the more media violence people, including children, view, the more aggressive they are likely  to be (Anderson et al. The relation between viewing television violence and aggressive behavior is about as strong as the relation between smoking and cancer or between studying and academic grades. People who watch more violence become more aggressive than those who watch less violence. It is clear that watching television violence can increase aggression, but what about violent video games. Youths spend countless hours playing these games, many of which involve engaging in extremely violent behaviors. The games often require the player to take the role of a violent person, to identify with the character, to select victims, and of course to kill the victims.
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There is good evidence that problem-solving treatment by general practitioners is efective for major depression cheap viagra plus 400 mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction injection therapy cost. The evidence concerning the remaining Cochrane review interventions for other health complaints (reattribution or cognitive behavioural group therapy for somatisation proven 400 mg viagra plus erectile dysfunction shake recipe, cognitive behavioural therapy for unexplained fatigue effective 400mg viagra plus impotence nerve damage, counselling for smoking cessation generic 400mg viagra plus fast delivery erectile dysfunction drugs covered by medicare, behavioural interventions to reduce alcohol reduction) is either limited or conficting. The authors of the review looked for occupational outcomes or cost-effectiveness but no studies provided any data). The results indicated most studies have demonstrated improved outcomes in terms of symptom Narrative review reduction, relapse prevention, functioning in the community, adherence to treatment, community and workplace involvement, and satisfaction with care received. The authors concluded there is conclusive evidence for the benefts of changing systems of care delivery to support the more efective management of depression in primary care. Their main recommendations for clinical practice were: primary care practices need to be able to regularly monitor individuals both during and after treatment of an episode of depression; and, psychiatrists can play important and efective roles by visiting primary care settings to discuss and assess individuals who sufer from depression. Potential reasons for varying prevalence rates across gender, cultures, and samples exposed to diferent traumas are discussed. Among psychopharmacological treatments, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors evidence the strongest treatment efects, yet these efects are modest compared with psychological treatments. The reviewer noted 7 distinct individual Narrative review level employment interventions (early identifcation, diagnosis, and treatment; assessment and planning; self-awareness counselling; coping skills training; work hardening; reasonable job accommodations; and, social network development) as well as interventions directed at the employer and at workplace organization. The reviewer noted there is a lack of high-level evidence for these employment interventions when used for mental illness. The report describes the problem that crippling depression and chronic anxiety are the biggest causes of misery in Britain today, and ofers a solution. The argument advanced can be summarised as follows: One in six of the population can be diagnosed as having depression or a chronic anxiety disorder (no evidence of severity is offered, beyond the statement that “we are not talking about the ‘worried well’. However, this view appears incongruous with the point-prevalence estimate that one-sixth of the population is affected, and therefore ‘crippled’). The alternative hypothesis that common mental health problems have become progressively ‘medicalised’ and destigmatised does not appear to have been considered). This is partly due to people being unwilling to take medication due to disliking side efects, or because they want to control their own mood (no evidence to support these statements is proffered. There is no exploration of potential interventions that might enhance willingness to take medications). This is because depression and anxiety make it difcult or impossible to work (given that 1 in 6 of the adult population is not off work due to these disorders, it seems clear that the majority do in fact continue to work, therefore the term ‘impossible’ seems overly strong). The alternative explanation that many have entered under a general rubric such as ‘stress’ was not considered). Again, evidence is not offered and this issue appears not to have been considered). Therefore if the person works just a month more as a result of the treatment, the treatment pays for itself (no information on work outcomes following treatment of depression and anxiety is provided; there is no discussion of cost-benefit for scenarios where less than 100% success rate is achieved). Contains summaries of the ‘state of the evidence’ on four topics, including one about implementation barriers by Julian Lef (pages 23-37). This contains a section on the therapeutic value of work: Work is a crucial factor in the social reintegration of psychiatric patients. However, in developed countries it is very difcult to fnd a job if you have a history of mental illness In order to improve the quality of life of people with mental illness living in the community, it is essential to forge strong links between mental health services and departments of employment, welfare and housing. Wide ranging report on the prevalence of mental health problems, impact and cost, stigma and discrimination, mental health and employment, Report mental health problems and worklessness, systems services and policy, and the research evidence about what works. Concluded that, despite their high prevalence in the workplace, there has been relatively little research about the efectiveness of interventions that assist people with common mental disorders to remain in work or return to work after a sickness absence. Summarised broadly similar conclusions from two recent reviews (Seymour & Grove 2005, Hill et al 2007) • For people who have common mental disorders that are afecting their work, brief individual therapy, mainly cognitive behavioural therapies, in short courses of up to eight weeks may be benefcial (for clinical outcomes). Interventions should be comprehensive and address both individual and organisation-level factors. There is little evidence on organisation-level interventions alone and what there is shows mixed results. However, there is no frm evidence that stress management techniques reduce the prevalence of common mental illness or of sickness absence. Also, no studies have been conducted of the use of stress management in people who have already developed a common mental disorder. The few exceptions, which were mostly conducted in the United States, suggest that the overall gain in labour output is much less marked than the reduction in symptoms. Its critics contend that most of the studies reviewed have major methodological limitations and that the only true randomised controlled trial showed no beneft of counselling. There is at best an absence of evidence that workplace counselling improves occupational outcomes. The reviewer noted one obvious Systematic conclusion is there is a paucity of literature regarding the costs of mood (afective) disorders in Europe. Estimates of direct costs are reasonably consistent between the few available studies, but are not consistent for the two studies that estimated indirect costs from short-term absence (neither included early retirement or mortality). Promoting mental well-being in the workplace: a European policy perspective 2005) Across the European Union there is a trend of increasing absenteeism and early retirement due to mental health problems, particularly stress and depression. Moreover, the sustainability of social protection Narrative review systems may be challenged further by increases in the levels of disability benefts paid to people who have left work on grounds of poor mental health. Yet despite these signifcant consequences, at both national and pan-European levels, decision-makers have been slow to recognise the importance of promoting mental health within the workplace, although recently there have been some positive developments. This paper outlines some of the socio-economic arguments for the promotion of good mental well-being in the labour force and identifes how they link with diferent national and European policy agendas around four key issues: economic growth and development, the promotion of a high level of public health, sustainability of social welfare systems and social inclusion. The role and activities to promote mental well-being in the workplace undertaken by both national and international organizations in Europe are outlined along with important gaps and challenges that need to be addressed. Changes in communication • Arrange for work requests to be put in writing for a worker who becomes anxious and confused when given verbal instructions • Train a supervisor to provide positive feedback along with criticisms of performance, for an employee re-entering the work force who needs to be reassured of their abilities after a long psychiatric hospitalization • Allow a worker who personalizes negative comments about their work performance to provide a self-appraisal before receiving feedback from a supervisor • Schedule daily planning sessions with a co-worker at the start of each day to develop hourly goals for someone who functions best with a clear time structure 2.
Increased shipping just the active ingredient in concentrate distance between point of supply and point of use form and assuming each container is reused in the has buy viagra plus 400 mg without prescription erectile dysfunction how young, in many parts of the world discount 400 mg viagra plus free shipping erectile dysfunction drugs natural, led to viagra plus 400 mg without prescription impotence synonym a nearly home 30 times cheap 400mg viagra plus fast delivery treatment of erectile dysfunction in unani medicine, the same value and convenience complete disappearance of B2C reusable packaging can be delivered with signifcantly reduced levels reliant on reverse logistics. However, under the of packaging, estimated to be 341,000 tonnes of right conditions, reverse logistics models for plastic packaging per annum in the United States packaging formats that include the end user can alone. In both developed Once a user invests in the home refll system, and developing markets, deposit systems for glass concentrate pods are purchased online, digitalising bottles exist that efectively incentivise container the brand. These models succeed when (i) distances on primary packaging to provide brand value. For example, some multilayer packaging or in the case of Belgian retailer Delhaize, which formats used today include an outer layer with the imports its best-selling wines in bulk and bottles sole purpose of creating a clean fnish for printing them close to its local market in reusable bottles, inks. Replenish believes the growth in penetration of online shopping presents reuse opportunities. Big Coca-Cola is typically able to cycle its glass bottles businesses are already responding to this trend, for 35–45 times. The of raw materials relative to other input costs, low growth of e-commerce and the increasing numbers cost collection and distribution infrastructure (often of people living in urban centres is forcing a greater the result of efcient back-hauling in developed disaggregation of products into the current logistics economies or low-cost labour in developing system, leading to congestion challenges in urban economies), low bargaining power of retailers, and environments. This markets are forecast to double in size by 2020, is covered in greater detail in the Ellen MacArthur and more retailers are moving to capitalise on this Foundation’s report Towards a Circular Economy — growth. It is yet unclear how these trends will models that include the user seem viable only afect B2C packaging in the long term, but if reuse for mostly high-value applications like glass. The models provide an efective solution for some of the Nespresso cofee pod delivery and collection associated challenges, then B2C reusable packaging system is another example of a B2C reverse could become increasingly relevant. A new system Ofine, groceries are returning to the high street, based on shared logistics assets could help reduce occupying smaller spaces closer to residential areas the cost barrier attached to reverse logistics models with localised stores that stock a range of products by creating an open infrastructure for new business tailored to the local demographic. In such a system, the modular high-frequency, small-basket transactions means dimensions that defne B2B shipments would set the idea of one large ‘weekend’ grocery shopping the boundary conditions for standardisation of trip is fading, and the megastore distribution primary product packaging. Every day, over 200,000 dabbas (a standardised lunch box also known as the tifn box), each containing a freshly cooked lunch, make their way across the complex maze of city streets and alleys to reach their end consumers. In a setting that combines high population density, limited infrastructure, congestion, and a largely illiterate workforce, the tifn system thrives thanks to its historically evolved routing code of coloured shapes, numbers, and letters that designate the direction of travel at each hub. A collecting dabbawala or box carrier, usually on bicycle, collects dabbas either from a worker’s home or from a supplier. The dabbawala then takes them to a sorting place, where the boxes are sorted into groups. The grouped boxes are put onto coaches of trains and unloaded at stations according to the code, which also directs the local dabbawala to the point of delivery. The empty boxes are collected after lunch or the next day and returned to the respective point of origin with a high degree of accuracy — the unsubstantiated claim is that dabbawalas make less than one mistake in every six million deliveries. Also measures lever that could have a signifcant impact on the for beverages bottles demonstrate how policy can potential of reusable plastic packaging in the B2C drive adoption of B2C reuse models, away from the segment. In San Francisco, for example, single-use plastic carrier bags, favouring reusable the sale and free distribution of drinking water in or non-plastic alternatives. In 2015, a new European single-use bottles of 21 ounces or less is prohibited Directive came into force requiring member states on city property. At the same time, the legislation to reduce the use of lightweight plastic carrier commits the city to install more widespread bags by taking measures that either reduce the drinking fountains and bottle flling stations. Today, most plastics are designed to be either recyclable or compostable or neither of the two. Keeping both options open by design is usually not possible with current materials technology and after-use infrastructure. While designing packaging for recycling comes with the advantage of keeping material value in the economy, designing packaging for composting can be valuable for targeted applications: it ofers a mechanism to return biological nutrients from the contents of the packaging that would have otherwise been lost, such as the residue of packaged food, back to the soil in the form of fertiliser. Successful initiatives have demonstrated the potential of compostable packaging at scale. The term ‘compostable packaging’ will be used in (which could be measured, for example, by the preference to ‘biodegradable packaging’ in this efect on germination and growth of plants). A Moreover, parameters such as moisture content, material is in essence industrially compostable if it aeration, pH, and carbon to nitrogen ratio do not meets the following four criteria: need to be controlled. Each certifcation body produces its own labels which, though • Disintegration: it fragments into pieces smaller referring to the same norms, can be confusing for than 2 mm under controlled composting citizens. In addition, as outlined above this report gives preference to the term ‘compostable’ over ‘biodegradable’. The term ‘biodegradable’ itself describes only that a material can biodegrade into natural elements with the help of micro-organisms (see Appendix B). However, as such fossil-based compostable plastics represent a smaller segment of the market, they are not represented in Figure 17. Actual recyclability and compostability depends on after-use infrastructure in place. Incineration/energy recovery and landfll pathways not shown (possible with all plastics). Home composting not shown either (limited uptake today) 2 ‘Recyclable’ is used here as short-hand for ‘mechanically recyclable’. The alternative, chemical recycling, is not applied at scale today and has – with today’s technologies – typically signifcant economic and environmental limitations 3 Some fossil-based plastics are industrially compostable. First, the packaging up in plastics recycling streams since compostable is prone to be mixed with organic contents such packaging can interfere with recycling processes as food after use.